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Gc M.L! 







3 1833 02562 0938 

Gc 977.201 J33m 
Montgomery, M- W. 
History of Jay County, 







51 & 63 La Salle-st, Chicago. 




53 La Salle-st., Chicago. 






i el i ratio I). 

To the Pioneers op Jay County, for their enterprise aud 
fortitude ia civilizing tlie wilderness, and to her Volunteer 
Soldiers, for their gallant efforts to crush this wicked Re- 
bellion, this Book is respectfully dedicated. 



This Book Is not written for the present generation. He who 
reads it without keeping this in view, will be disappointed. 
Not that it possesses any merit which cannot be appreciated at 
the present time, but because it narrates those events which 
grow in interest as they recede into the past. There are two 
periods in the history of Jay County of great interest to her 
people, viz : that of its Early Settlement and that during the 
War against the Eebellion. To preserve for future generations 
of her citizens a correct narration of these epochs, is the 
object of 

July 20th, 1864. 


Chapter. Page. 

I. First Family in Jay County, ... 13 

II. The Second Family of Settlers, - - - 26 

III. Orman Perring — The Hawkins Family, etc. 45 

IV. The Fugitive Slaves, 54 

V. William Simmons— Lost — Found, - - 63 

VI. Nancj^ Hawkins — The Oldest Cabin — Incidents, 67 

VII. The Pioneers of 1830, 73 

VIII. Settlers and Incidents, 81 

IX. New Settlers and their Experiences, - - 100 

X. Wild Animals — Indians Fire-Hunting — First 

Election — Lawsuit— Schools, - - 104 

XI. Organization of the County, ... - 119 

XII. Courts — Officers — Attorneys, ... 128 

XIIL Township History, 147 

XIV. Rev. I. N. Taylor— Limberlost Church, - 179 

XV. Liber College, 189 

XVI. Farmers' Academy — Greneral Items, - - 205 

XVIL Jay County and the War, - - - - 220 


In 1820 the presence of a white family in the territory now 
embraced within the limits^of Jay County had never been 
known. The aborigines had ranged its forests uninter- 
rupted in tlieir wild pursuits. In its wilderness they chased 
their game, they paddled their rough canoes upon its 
streams, and here and there they kindled camp-fires, built 
the wigwam, engaged in their savage revelries, or fought 
their battles. But with the firs'- encroachments of civiliza- 
tion upon their hunting grounds, they took their departure. 
The flint^arrow-head, the tomahawk and the stone battle-axe 
are the ; only mementos;! they have left us. Now, much of 
their forest is cut away, and civilized men, with all the insti- 
tutions of society and progress, occupy their places. To de- 
lineate the causes and primary agents which have wrought 
out this noble transformation is the pretension of this little 

To gather fresh from the lips of the pioneers, while they 
still remained, the story of their early trials, was neces- 
sary to the completeness of the work. They are fast passing 
away. While this work has been going through the press, 
one venerable pioneer — Samuel Grissell — has departed, and 
he will never read the pages in which he took so lively an 
interest. Had the work been delayed a few years, the histo- 
ry of the early settlement of Jay County would have been 
wrapped in the uncertainties of tradition. One thing has 
embarrassed the author at every step : Most of the persons 
named herein are now living, and he who speaks of living 
men, bares himself to showers of arrows from the quivers of 


When the work was commenced, four j-ears ago, very lit- 
tle was known by the people of the county, generally, con- 
cerning its early settlement Less than half a dozen persons 
then living in the county knew wlio was the first settler, 
and wrong impressions widely prevailed upon that, as well 
as very many other subjects. Some have boasted of their 
knowledge of the early history of the county, yet they could 
not tell who was its earliest settler, or even who was the first 
in their own township. To brush away false traditions and 
reveal fects, has been a leading object in preparing these 
pages. Much difficulty has attended the investigation. It 
has required patient, persevering labor to ascertain the truth 
about many disputed points. To accurately fix a single date 
lias sometimes required days of inquiry and cross-examina- 
tion. To gather the histories of the companies, while they 
were bravely facing the foe, has also beto a difficult task, 
but they make a record highly flattering to the patriotism of 
the soldiers. Jay County has never offered a bounty. Her 
financial condition has been such as to render this course 
necessary, unless she should overwhelm herself with debt. 
At the opening of the war she v>^as without public buildings, 
or money to erect them. The building of a jail and pur- 
chase of a poor farm were a necessity. Other public build- 
ings must soon be built. Thus, while many other counties 
have given tens of thousands of dollars to induce their citi- 
zens to volunteer, the patriot sons of Jay have gone forth un- 
influenced by other motives ihun pure love of country, which 
is patriotism in its noblest sense. Nor has there been less 
volunteering on this account. The number to be drafted in 
the county under the call of the President in July for 500,000 
men, shows that the county is equal to her sisters, which, 
no bounty being olfered, reflects the highest honor upon her 
people. The number of men to be drafted is 203, distributed 
among the townships as follows: Richland, none; Knox, 
19; Penn, 15; Jefferson, 28; Green, 27; Jackson, 19; Pike, 
32 ; Wa3me, none ; Bear Creek, 5 ; Madison, 17 ; Noble, 24; 
Wabash, 17. 



How Strangely have the fortunes of war scattered the One 
Thousand Soldiers from Jay ! From Gettysburg to Charles- 
ton, from Rich Mountain to Pea Ridge and New Orleans— 
everj'where over the extended theatre of the war have her 
soldiers fought. In every contest their devotion to their coun- 
try's cause has been self-sacrificing, and their bravery unfal- 
tering. A crown of glory and the gratitude of their country- 
men await them. The alithor regrets exceedingly that cir- 
cumstances beyond his control compelled him to omit any 
history of the fractional companies, only so far as the lists of 
the members indicate. Company F, 40th Ohio regiment, has 
traversed Western Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, and is 
now participating in the grand operations of Gen. Sherman 
before Atlanta. Their record is a noble one, of which their 
children's children will be proud. A sketch of the hard- 
fought battles and brave deeds of company C, 19th Indiana 
regiment, would itself make a volume. It is their all-suffi- 
cient, crowning glory that they participated in the battles of 
Cedar Mountain, Gains' Farm, Second Bull Run, South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorville and 
Gettysburg, and are now in the struggle before Petersburg. 
The repeated efforts of the author to obtain a history of com- 
pany E, 7th Indiana Cavalry, have been constantly baffled by 
some strange caprice of the mails. 

The author now presents the result of his labors to the peo- 
ple of Jay County. That the work is imperfect, he fully 
realizes. When several thousand dates and as many names 
are given in so small a compass, it would be very strange if 
errors did not occur. Out of the abundant material that has 
been gathered, the chief difficulty has been to determine 
what not to say. But he rejoices in the consciousness that, 
through it all, he has been constantly governed by an honest 
purpose to do justice to the subject, so far as his poor abilities 
would permit. He hopes the reader will find as much pleas- 
ure in the perusal as he has found in the preparation. 

The author's acknowledgments are due to many persons 


for information which thej^ have kindly furnished. First 
among these are Mary Studabaker, Mary Brooks and Nancy 
Hawkins — that daring trio, the oldest pioneers of Jay Coun- 
ty. B. VV. Hawkins lias given much valuable and varied 
information. Without his aid no correct histor}' of the early 
settlement of the county could have been written. The pa- 
tient research and friendly interest of Hon. J. M. Haj^nes 
have added many facts which would not otherwise have 
been obtained. From the complete diary of Hon. Theophilus 
Wilson the sketch of New Corydon is gathered. The history 
of other villages is not so fully given, because no one has 
kept so faithful a record of them. Mr. Wilson also furnished 
other acceptable items. Rev. I. N. Tajdor has also contrib- 
uted a large share of facts, and J. C. Lotz statistics from 
Washington City. The many pioneers whom the author 
has consulted and the many others who have written him, 
have placed him under obligations. The principal facts 
given in the histories of the respective military companies 
have been kindly furnished by the following persons : Com- 
pany C, 39th Indiana, James M. Bromagem ; company B, 
34th Indiana, Major Nimrod Headington; company E, 89th 
Indiana, Captain J. P. Winters, Sergeant J. W. Jackson and 
Elias Loofbourrow; company H, 100th Indiana, Major J. 
W. Headington and Rev. E. Tucker ; company F, 75th In- 
diana, Lieutenant Joseph Lewis, Lieutenant G. W. lilcGriff 
and Charles A. Black ; company B, 11th Indiana Cavalry, 
Lieutenant R. C. Harper ; company C, 19th Indiana, George 
M. Rathbun ; company F, 40th Ohio, Francis McLaughlin, 
at Lancaster, and the members of the company in the field ; 
the One Hundred Days Men, George G. Montgomery and 
Captain G. W. Fairchilds. In the Miscellaneous List, valua- 
ble services have been rendered by Provost Marshal Cowgill, 
of Wabash, and G. W. Abel. To all these the author owes 
his thanks; and to his ever gracious Heavenly Father, 
through whom all blessings come, he would express his pro- 
found gratitude. 



On the 15th day of February, 1821, Mr. Peter 
Studabaker and Miss Mary Siraison were joined 
in the bands of holy wedlock at the house of the 
Simison family, where Fort Recovery,* Mercer 
County, Ohio, now stands. The newly married 
pair resolved to go still farther on the frontier, 
and hew out for themselves a home in the wilder- 
ness. So they gathered their household goods, 
and with several friends entered the wilds, soon 
striking the " Quaker Trace" leading from Rich- 
mond to Fort Wayne, which they followed until 
they reached the Wabash river. This spot was 
their destination, and upon the low bank, near the 
water's edge, they prepared to " camp." Cutting 
four forked poles, they drove one end of each into 

* See map. 


the ground, laid poles and brush across the top, 
and their camp was completed. A lire was kin- 
dled at one end, by which the young wife cooked 
supper for the company — her tirst experience in 
house, or ra.her camp-keeping, by herself. Their 
simple repast was highly relished and soon dis- 
patched, and they retired to rest, blankets spread 
upon the ground serving for beds. 

Sleep had scarcely calmed the wearied company 
wlie'n they were aroused by the yells of a gang of 
approaching wolves. Elsewhere came an answer- 
ing howl, then another and another, till the forests 
seemed ringing with their hideous yells. The 
howling became so terrific, the dog sprang out 
and threatened to give battle, but soon came 
bounding back, panic stricken, and jumped upon 
the nuptial bed. As they lay there, so close to 
the bank, they could see about a dozen wolves at 
the water's edge on the opposite shore. Soon 
they heard the sharp, savage snap of wolf-teeth 
near their bed, and glaring eyes shone in the 
darkness within six feet of their camp. The men 
sprang from the ground in alarm, seized their 
rifles and fired. The howling pack fled in haste 
and did not return. Again the men lay down, 
and soon "tired nature's sweet restorer" calmed 
their fears, and they slept soundly till morning — 
perhaps dreaming of the pleasant homes and dear 
friends of their childhood. Thus camped and 


slept the first white family that ever trod the wil- 
derness which fifteen years afterward became 
Jay County. 

This was on the farm now owned by Samuel 
Hall, on the south bank of the "Wabash, at New 
Corydon. Soon Mr. S. built a cabin, " all of the 
olden time," and into it they moved, with the 
naked earth for a floor. This cabin, .the first home 
of that now widely known pioneer family — a rude 
hut twelve by sixteen, of small round logs, with 
clapboard roof held on by " weight poles," — was 
the first civilized dwelling ever erected in our 
county. Unbroken forests were on every hand ; 
no house within fifteen miles — no mill or store 
in thirty-five. Their only companions were In- 
dians — their only foes were wolves. 

These animals, always annoying by their con- 
stant howling, were often very troublesome. It 
was next to impossible to raise stock of any kind. 
Once a wolf came up to the house in open day- 
light, to attack a calf, when Mrs. S. appeared, and 
it ran oif. At other times they were still bolder. 
One night a pack attacked the hogs. Mr. S. went 
out with his gun, his wife holding a torch while 
he shot at them five times, but without eliect, and 
they came still nearer, snapping their teeth almost 
within reach. They seemed bent on an attack, 
and the entreaties of his wife at last prevailed on 
him to go into the house. 


Mr. Studabaker obtained a livelihood in various 
ways — principally by liunting. Ilis delight was 
to be in the wilderness, beyond the reach of soci- 
ety and its innovations. He loved the quiet gran- 
deur of the forest, and the excitement of hunting 
deer, squirrels, otters, wild ducks, wolves and 
bears, possessed to him irresistible charms. The 
game he killed furnished meat for his table in 
abundance, and of the rarest kind. But they had 
other sources of income. Even at that early day 
many travelers passed along the " Quaker Trace," 
and they all stopped to enjoy the hospitality of 
these pioneers. In fact, at that time it was rather 
a matter of necessity, as the distance in either 
direction to any other house was a day's travel. 
The " Quaker Trace" was so called because it was 
opened and traveled by the Quakers of Wayne 
County, on their way to Fort Wayne to market. 

Mr. S. sometimes traded provisions to the In- 
dians for furs, and by selling the furs added some- 
thing to his income. An incident of this kind is 
worth relating. 

In the fall of 1821, Mr. S. and Thomas Eobin- 
son, who then lived on the " Prairie," in what is 
now Adams County, went to Greenville and got 
some flour, and bringing it to the Wabash, dug 
out a large canoe and started down the river, to 
sell their flour to the Miami Indians, in a town at 
the mouth of the Mississinewa — one hundred 


miles by the river route, and a few miles above 
Peru, Miami County, Indiana. Easily and rapidly 
they glided down the smooth waters of the 
"Wabash. In the afternoon of the second day 
they came in sight of the town. They soon saw 
that the Indians were on a desperate " spree," and 
were all dancing, singing, yelling and fighting. 
They wisely concluded it would not be safe to 
visit the town that night ; so they rowed np the 
river a short distance, anchored their canoe, went 
ashore and camped for the night. The next day 
they went down towards the town. Robiiason 
staid with the canoe, while Studabaker went to 
negotiate a sale of the flour. The first Indian he 
met was a squaw, named " Bigknife," with whom 
he was well acquainted. She told him they had 
had a terrible time the night before, and that in 
the fighting several Indians had been killed, and 
that they were then all in their huts, sleeping off 
the eficcts of their revelry. He inquired if any 
of the men were sober. She replied that one was? 
and offered to conduct him to the hut where that 
Indian slept. On their way through the village, 
which seemed almost deserted, they passed by a 
young Indian who was lying with his stomach 
ripped open, and part of his entrails lying upon 
the ground, but still alive. They went and aroused 
the sober Indian, who after much painting and 
ornamenting, went with Mr. Studabaker to the 


canoe. On their Tvay they passed the wonnded 
Indian. A squaw was sitting by his side, weep- 
ing, replacing the entrails, and with an awl and 
deer's sinew was sewing up the horrihle wound. 
The Indian looked at the flour, and pointing to 
the sun and the western sky, said that when the 
sun reached such a place the Indians would get 
hungry and come and buy. At the appointed 
time this sober Indian came down to the canoe, 
followed by the others, each of whom purchased 
a small quantity of flour. Our adventurers then 
returned, occujDying about three days in their up- 
stream rowing. 

This family endured very many severe hardships 
during their stay at this point on the Wabash. So 
the first families who settled in each section of the 
county endured privations and trials which would 
have overwhelmed others less patient, energetic 
and brave. To the comfortably situated residents 
at the present time these trials seem almost incred- 
ible. Here is a leaf from the life of Mary Studa- 
baker : 

Late in the autumn of 1822, the Indians, as 
they were sometimes in the habit of doing, stole 
two colts — one from Mr. Studabaker, and one from 
his brother-in-law, John Simison. In the early 
part of winter Simison came to Studabaker's, and 
the two men set out for "Wapakoneta, Ohio, in 
search of the colts among the Indians of that 


country. Before leaving:, Mr. Studabaker hired 
a boy from tlie settlement to stay with his wife, 
who then had a babe only three months old, to 
cut the wood and build fires. The men had been 
gone scarcely an hour ^yhen this boy proved 
treacherous, and left Mrs. Studabaker and her 
child entirely alone. This placed her in an alarm- 
ing situation. Her husband expected to be absent 
nearly a week ; the weather was very cold, and 
she had no wood and but little strength. She 
was fifteen miles from any neighbors, in a wilder- 
ness full of roving gangs of Indians and wolves. 
The prospect was a dreary one. She saw her 
dangerous situation, and with heroic fortitude 
resolved to do her utmost to save herself and 
child. She devoted herself assiduously to chop- 
ping wood and building fires. Quite naturally 
she sought the kinds of wood which would chop 
the easiest, and sometimes cut "buckeye," the 
poorest of all wood. This made it difficult to 
keep good fires ; but she managed to get along 
without suffering much, except from loneliness, 
until the fifth day, when the weather turned ex- 
tremely cold. All this time had passed, and she 
had not seen a human being. Even the sight of 
an Indian would have gladdened her heart. This 
day she built a fire, but it would not burn. She 
chopped more wood and piled the great fire-place 
full; but all in vain. To use her own words, "It 


seemed to be, as it is said to be in Greenland 
Bometiraes, too cold for the lire to burn." Dis- 
heartened and despairing, as her last hope, she 
took her babe and went to bed. Here they must 
lie until assistance came, or freeze to deatli ! But 
the kind care of an ever- watchful Father in Heaven 
was upon her. In about two hours Mr. Studa- 
baker came home, bringing the stolen colt. He 
soon built a large, comfortable, crackling fire. 
How great was her joy at this very opportune 
rescue ! 

Mrs. Studabaker gives the following account of 
the survey of this part of Indiana by the govern- 
ment surveyors. In the winter of 1821 and 1822 
James "Worthington, of Columbus, Ohio, son of 
Governor Worthington, accompanied by nine 
assistants, came to Mr. Studabaker's, and made 
their home with him during the three months 
occupied in making the survey. Having two sets 
of instruments, they operated in two distinct com- 
panies, and surveyed the territory now making 
the counties of Jay, Adams and Wells. They 
gave Mr. Studabaker a plat of their survey, which 
was very useful to the early settlers for many 

About forty rods below Hall & Arnett's Mills, 
at !New Corydou, is a tree on which many dates 
have been cut, and among others the figures 
"1822." They are now grown up, so as to be 


barely visible, and have every appearance of 
having been put there at that time. It is quite 
likely tlie work of the government surveyors. 

The first person born in Jay County was Abeam 
Studabakek. He was born in the little cabin on 
the Wabash, September 29th, 1822, a child of the 
wilderness — the first born of the family and of the 
county. His life was but a blossom, having died 
March 11th, 1821:, at Fort Eecovery. Another 
son was afterward given the same name. 

Mr. Studabaker moved to the Wabash with the 
intention of making that his permanent home; 
but the frequent overflows of the river at that time 
discouraged him, and finally led him to move 
away. One evening in the spring of 1822 several 
travelers stopped to stay all night. The Wabash 
was quite high, but not unusually so. Mrs. Stu- 
dabaker made a bed on the floor, in which the 
travelers retired to rest. In the night, one of 
them thought he felt rather "moist," and on turn- 
ing over found the puncheons were floating. They 
got up ; one went up in the " loft," and the other 
concluded to nap the rest of the night away on 
the logs of wood by the fire place. But the family, 
being more fortunate, were on a bedstead, and 
slept there until morning, when they found all 
the puncheons except the two on which the bed- 
posts rested, floating about the room. Mr. Studa- 
baker waded out and brought his canoe into the 


house, and took the family to dry land in the 
"woods, where they camped until the water went 
down, which was in four or five days. In this 
way the Wabash overflowed the land about his 
cabin, and he moved back to Fort Recover}^, hav- 
ing lived in Jay county about two years. 

Mary Studabaker has been a pioneer all he^ 
life. She was born March 16th, 1796, in Sherman 
Valley, Penn. At the age of tv/o years her father, 
John Simison, moved to Kentucky and settled 
within six miles of Lexington. Residing there 
six years, they moved to Warren County, Ohio. 
After living there ten or twelve years, they moved 
to Greenville, and from there, in the spring of 
1817, to Fort Recovery. There was not a single 
family then living in all the region of the Upper 
Wabash. They were the first pioneers of Fort 
Recovery — that place so celebrated in history as 
the scene of St, Clair's defeat, and Mary was 
afterward of Jay, and still later of the south 
part of Adams County. There was a trading 
house then at Fort Recovery, built by David Con- 
nor. It was about twelve feet square, and sur- 
rounded by pickets — logs set in the ground reach- 
ing about eight feet high — as a protection against 
the Indians. Into this house John Simison and 
family moved. Mr. Simison farmed the ground 
upon which the town is now built, while his boys 
did the hunting:. He raised most of the livino: for 


the family, but had to go to Greenville to find a 
store and mill. He had a hand mill, and some- 
times ground on that. 

It was while living here that the Treaty was 
made with the Indians, October 6th, 1818. Dr. 
Perrine, of Greenville, attended that meeting. 
Starting in the morning, on foot, he expected to 
reach Simison's that evening ; but night overtook 
him while he was in what is now Madison Town- 
ship. Finding he must camp out, he was much 
alarmed lest the wolves should devour him. 
Coming upon a much-broken tree-top, he set 
about building a camp that would protect him. 
Out of the broken limbs he built a very small, 
oval-shaped pen, leaving a hole at the bottom. 
Into this he crept, and drew a stick, prepared for 
the purpose, into the hole after him, thus effectu- 
ally blocking all entrance. Curling up there, he 
slept soundly. Some time after this Thomas Rob- 
inson settled beside Mr. Simison — then soon 
moved into Adams County. 

But sorrow was in store for this family. Mrs. 
Simison died in September, 1820, and on the last 
day of that ever-memorable year, she was fol- 
lowed by her husband. His burial took place on 
]^ew Year's da^y, 1821. Thomas Robinson and 
Peter Studabaker happened to be there at the 
time of his death, and making a rough box which 
had to answer for a coffin, they buried their pio- 


neer friend. But for the fortunate presence of 
these men, none beside the mourning orphans 
would have been there to perform the last sad 
oflSces for the lamented dead. 

In a few weeks Mary was married, and entered 
upon her brief life of trials in Jay County. After 
moving back to Fort Recovery, Peter Studabaker 
was engaged chiefly in farming for about twelve 
years, when he moved to Adams County, where 
he died June 15th, 1840. He was born in 1790, 
in Moreland County, Pennsylvania. Mart now 
lives with her son Abram, in Adams Count}'-, 
Indiana, in a log house, with one of those great 
old-fashioned cabin fire places, which so abund- 
antly dispense warmth and cheerfulness to the 
inmates. It is about sixty feet from the river, 
upon the banks of which she has lived since her 
childhood days,nearly half a centur3^ By the side 
of its quiet waters she was wooed and won, and 
has devotedly braved many dangers, reared a 
large family, and followed her husband and several 
children to the silent tomb. She is now seventy- 
four years of age, and though in feeble health, her 
mind still retains its orio-inal vigor. Strono; com- 
mon sense, quick perception and good judgment 
are her characteristics. Indeed, without these 
qualities, she could not have passed through so 
rugged and eventful a life. Her son. Honorable 
David Studabaker, has resided for many years in 


Decatur, Indiana, where he has been, and still is, 
a prominent attorney. He has represented that 
county in the Legislature of the State, and was 
for four years the State Senator from the district 
composed of the counties of Jay, Adams and 
Wells, in which position he sustained himself 
with credit. 



On Monday morning, near the close ofl^ovem- 
ber, 1823, a few persons might have been seen 
crossing the Mississinewa river, making their way 
northward from the residence of Mr. Mishack 
Lewallen, or what is now the pleasant village of 
Kidgeville, Randolph County, Indiana. The com- 
pany consisted of John Gain, who was a Dutch 
Indian-trader, John Brooks, his wife Mary 
Brooks, and ]N"ancy Brooks, who was then an in- 
fant. Mary and her child were riding in a wagon, 
drawn by one yoke of oxen ; John Gain was 
driving, while John Brooks was cutting out the 
way. They were entering an untamed and un- 
known wilderness, where before only the tragic 
scenes of the wild forest had been enacted. 

The noiseless march of the surly bear, the 
piteous bleating of the deer, as, wearied and des- 


pairing, it resigns itself to the jaws of the wolves 
that have been fleetly chasing it for a day ; the 
terrible howling and bloody battles over the 
booty ; the stealthy step of the Indian in pursuit 
ot his game, and sharp crack of his rifle and ex- 
ulting "whoop," and upward curling of the blue 
smoke from camp fires or rude wigwams, and the 
excitement of the " Indian war dance" — all these 
were the sights and sounds to which these tall 
forests had been mute witnesses for centuries. 
The sound of the white man's axe was the precur- 
sor of the dawn of civilization upon that wilder- 
ness. The company were endeavoring to follow 
an Indian bridle path called the " Godirey Trace," 
which led from the settlement on the Mississine- 
wa to the Indian town on the Salimonie. 

The two men kept up a lively discourse upon 
the new country, the abundance of game, the 
quality of the soil, the prospect for profitable trade 
with the Indians, and' such other topics as are 
always full of interest to the pioneer. Thus slow- 
ly wended their way forward the second white 
family that ever moved into Jay County, and the 
first one that made it their permanent home. 

The day was a most beautiful one, and the 
weather very pleasant for the season. The mild 
brilliance of the autumn sunliglit tinted the forests 
with golden rays, the fallen leaves spread the 
earth with a carpet of brown, and the air was me- 


lodious with the farewell songs of the feathery 
tribes, as they took their flight for the sunny re- 
gions of the far South. Save the chirping of the 
birds and the frisking and chattering of the squir- 
rels, the voices and movements of the company 
were all that broke the stillness of those dense 
forests. The scene before and around them was 
grand and inspiring, and the men moved forward 
elated and cheerful, while hope painted the future 
with long lives of enjoyment and prosperity. 

On their way they passed over the beautiful 
knoll on which ISTew Mount Pleasant is now sit- 
uated, and toward evening stopped for the night, 
and camped on the banks of a small creek, after- 
ward called Brooks' Creek, in honor of the family 
which was the first to camp, and subsequently the 
first to live upon its banks. They kindled a 
cheerful fire by the side of a large log, and Mary 
Brooks cooked supper by it, getting water from 
the stream. Soon after nightfall they prepared to 
rest, for all were weary with their day's travel. 
The ground was dry, and they gathered in heaps 
the fallen leaves, spread blankets upon them, and, 
with feet toward the fire, all lay down under the 
star-spangled canopy which overspread them. But 
Mary Brooks did not sleep. Her heart was full 
of sadness. To use her own language, "she was 
sad all that day, as they came through the wil- 
derness." They seemed to be entering an unend- 


ing forest, and going — she knew not where. She 
had bidden farewell to friends, society and even 
civilization, and was going where, besides her hus- 
band and child, her only companions would be 
Indians and wild beasts. Her husband could 
hunt, trade or travel ; but what could she do to 
draw her mind from the surrounding wilderness ? 
A lonely life in a dreary wilderness, beyond the 
reach of society and friends — a sad, disheartening 
prospect ! Still more, as they lay upon the 
ground in the open air, darkness around them,__ 
the twinkling stars above them, the wolves howled 
fearfully around the camp. To an old hunter 
such circumstances are fascinating, but to woman 
— delicate, sensitive, home-loving woman — they 
have no charms. So Mary Brooks lay down upon 
her bed of leaves, and wept bitterly all that long 

Many times she besought her husband to take 
her back to the settlements ; but his desire to go 
forward and try the life of a pioneer and secure a 
home for his family, led him to deny her urgent 

Early the next morning they set out for the 
Indian village, on the banks of the Salimonie, of 
twenty or thirty huts. The Indians were of the 
Miami tribe, and Francois Godfrey their chief. A 
few years afte.rward he built a brick house there, 
and since then it has generally been known as the 


" Godfrey Farm."* The Indians left in 1884, 
and the farm is now owned by a resident of Ken- 
tucky. They reached this town about sunset. 
The Indians were very kind, and f^ave them a 
camp to sleep in that night. On Wednesday 
mori^^ig they crossed the SaUmonie to their 
home, three quarters of a mile distant. This 
consisted of two cabins, built by John Gain — one 
for a dwelling, and the other to keep articles in 
for traffic with the Indians. They were situated 
on the low bank of a small prairie. No ground 
was cleared around the cabins, but the men im- 
mediately set to work and cleared seven acres. 
Mary Brooks, naturally industrious, energetic and 
cheerful, looked about her and went to work. 
Though twenty-four miles from any white family, 
surrounded by forests and savages, yet for the 
sake of pleasing her husband, whom she devoted- 
ly loved, she resolved to be contented. 

Having introduced the second family who 
braved tlie dangers and endnred the privations of 
pioneer life in Jay, a brief sketch of their former 
lives may be interesting : 

John Brooks, born August 6th, 1791, near Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania, was raised a farmer, in 
Maj'sville, Ohio. M^rj Campbell was born Oc- 
tober 19th, 1T99, in Bourbon County, Kentucky. 

* See map. 


At an early age she moved to Ohio, where, in her 
seventeenth year, she married John Brooks, July 
15th, 1816. They farmed mitil, in June, 1817, 
Mr. Brooks came to Ridge ville, Indiaua, to see 
his sister, Hannah Lewallen. He was so fascin- 
ated with the country that he would not return to 
Ohio, and sent for his wife. Mary, willing to fol- 
low the fortunes of her husband, immediately 
prepared for the long trip, bade her friends what 
proved to be a last farewell, and set out on horse- 
back. Her youth, tine health and adventurous 
spirit made her anxious to see the "new coun- 
try." She arrived safely at the frontier settle- 

In a few weeks her first child, Elizabeth, was 
born ; but it died in thirteen months, and was the 
first person buried in the cemetery at Ridgeville. 
There were but three families in that settlement 
prior to her arrival. They were Joab Ward-, 
Mishack Lewallen and Stephen Jones. 

One day, one of the men shot an Indian whom 
he caught stealing cabbage from his garden. This 
aroused the anger of the Indians, and the settle- 
ment was very much alarmed lest they should all 
be murdered. They made a fort of Lewalien's 
house, and the four families lived in it for two 
weeks, in constant fear of an attack. But their 
enemies did not come, and they again ventured 
forth to their usual avocations. During the sum- 


mer of 1823 Mr. Brooks made two visits to the 
Godfrey Farm, and there became acquainted with 
John Gain, who offered him $60 a 3'ear if he 
w^oiild bring his family there and keep house. 
Desiring to get money to enter some land, he ac- 
cepted the offer, and in November Jolm Gain 
took the family as heretofore narrated, to his home 
on the little prairie. 

John Gain soon began to think that he could 
do better at Fort "Wayne, and in February, 1824, 
moved there. This greatly embarrassed Mr. 
Brooks. It deprived him of the expected incomfe, 
and left him there alone with the Indians, with no 
means of conveying his family to the settlement. 
In the spring he planted the cleai-ed ground in 
corn, and there was a fine prospect for a crop un- 
til the blackbirds came by thousands and destroy- 
ed the most of it. Mrs. Brooks says it seemed as 
if there was a bird for every ear. Fortunately 
John Brooks was a favorite with the Indians, and 
they taught him their arts in hunting and trap- 
ping, and these were now his only dependence. 
During his stay there he killed thirteen wolves, 
besides large numbers of deer, raccoon, and other 
animals. He sohi the furs in Fort Wayne at high 
prices. In this way he supported his family the 
first year. The second spring he again planted 
corn, and raised an abundant crop. After a while 
he got a yoke of oxen, and then commenced trad- 


ing with the Indians, mostly in flour, which he 
brought from Stillwater, Darke County, Ohio. 

One time when Mr. Brooks was preparing to 
go to Hidgeville, he got an old Indian woman, 
who was the mother of Francois Godfrey, the Chief, 
to stay with Mary during his absence. She was 
a kind old "squaw," and Mrs. Brooks avers was 
quite good company. They passed the time pleas- 
antly together, until one day an Indian came 
there and gave her some whisky, and she drank 
freely. That night she was taken very sick. Mrs. 
Brooks did everything possible for her relief ; but 
she grew worse. About two o'clock in the morn- 
ing she brought her blanket, sat down on the 
floor, and leaned her head against Mrs. Brooks, 
and there, supported by her pale-faced friend, in a 
few minutes she breathed her last. Mrs. Brooks 
laid the corpse upon the floor, covered it np and 
waited alone with the dead until morning, when 
the Indian who had been there the evening be- 
fore, came, and she sent him to the Chief with the 
news. A large number of Indians then came 
down to Brooks', and showed many signs of sin- 
cere mourning. By their request, Mrs. Brooks 
baked a large cake in the ashes, and they buried 
it with the corpse. The friendship of the Indi- 
ans, and especially of the Chief, for the Brooks 
family was now greatly increased. Mr. Brooks' 
business kept him much of the time away from 


home, and tlie Chief took great pains to see that 
the family was not molested. lie gave orders to 
his tribe that any Indian who would disturb them 
should be killed ; and whenever Mr. Brooks was 
absent, this Chief would send his son almost every 
day to inquire of Mrs. Brooks' welfare. During 
the several years in which the Indians were their 
only neighbors, no unfriendliness or cruelty was 
shown them. 

In June, 182i, Mr. Brooks started to Stillwater 
for provisions, expecting to be gone several days. 
His wife and child were to be left alone, as was 
usual in such cases. She saw no one for several 
days, except a traveler on his way to Fort Wayne, 
who called for a meal. A heavy rain caused an 
unprecedented rise in the streams, rendering it 
impossible for Mr. Brooks to reach his family or 
get nearer to them than Ridgeville. Mrs. Brooks 
now began to fear for her husband. She knew 
that he would make eveiy effort in his power to 
reach his family, and greatly feared that he would 
risk too much and get drowned. But apprehen- 
sions of her own safety soon added to her per- 
plexities. Her provisions were nearly gone, and 
the Salimo'nie remained so high that she could 
not cross to the Indian village to get relief. Her 
forebodings and anxieties increased until, on the 
thirteenth day of her husband's absence, she gave 
the last mouthful of food about the house to her 


child. She then had nothing whatever left but 
some sugar and a little milk. ^ ^ 9S03 ff 

Still the Salimonie overflowed its banks, and 
relief came not. Her child lived on milk, but 
cried almost continually, while her own sadness 
and hunger were overwhelming. The belief that 
Mr. Brooks was drowned, added to her own hun- 
ger, made her desperate. In this suflering and 
despairing condition did the poor woman and her 
child live for three days. By this time she gave 
up all hope of ever seeing her husband again, and 
supposed she must starve ; but preferring a watery 
grave to the slow torments of starvation, she 
resolved to go to the Salimonie and drown herself 
and little one. Taking the child, she went to 
the river, but her weakness compelled her to rest 
several times on the way. Probably the sight of 
the swollen, angry current startled her, for she sat 
down on a log when she reached the water's edge. 
To use her own language : " It was the thought 
that my husband was dead that so discouraged 
me, and I concluded to go half way across the foot 
log and throw myself into the stream." While 
there weeping she saw a person coming toward 
her on the opposite side of the river. Seeing he 
had a hat on, she knew it was a white man. After 
wading a long distance he reached the foot log and 
came across to her. She was so weak that her joy 
quite overcame her, and for a time she could not 


answer his question — "What is the matter?" At 
length she replied — " I'm starving !" It was her 
old friend John Gain, returning for some things 
he had left there. On learning her condition he 
went with her, and carried the child back to the 
cabin, and then went over to the JLndian village 
for food. He got eighteen pounds of flour and 
six of bacon, and started back, but by the time he 
reached the river it was night. "Wading to the 
foot log, he found the water had risen during his 
absence, until the sweeping current was above it. 
To attempt crossing would be certain death, and 
those whom he was trying to succor would also 
be lost. He stood pondering what to do until the 
increasing darkness placed him in a new danger. 
There were many deep holes along the bottoms, 
and knowing that the darkness would prevent him 
from avoiding them, he dared not return. Stand- 
ing in three feet of water, a woman and her child 
starving for want of the flour and bacon he had 
on his back, while to go forward or backward 
would be almost certain death, he was in a sad 
dilemma. But there was no alternative — he must 
stand there ; so there he stood, sides deep in water, 
the night long ! Kever was tlie gray dawn of 
morning welcomed more gladly. He then made 
his way back to the town and inquired for a canoe, 
but there was none nearer than three miles up the 
stream. He gave a young Indian one dollar to 


bring it down, and charged him to make all pos- 
sible haste. But the Indian took his leisure, and 
it was noon before he returned, and one o'clock 
when John Gain reached the cabin with the long- 
needed refreshments. He staid and saw the fam- 
ished ones eat the first meal for nearly four days. 
Their gratification and thankfulness amply com- 
pensated him for his efibrts to relieve them. 
Then he went his way, and Mary Brooks was 
again alone. It had now been seventeen days 
since her husband's departure, and during that 
time the only human beings she had seen was 
the traveler before mentioned and John Gain. 
On the nineteenth day she was greatly rejoiced at 
the sight of her husband. He left his oxen at the 
Indian town, crossed the Salimonie by falling 
trees and wading. They then set about making 
a canoe, or "perogue," as they were then called, 
and after rolling it three-quarters of a mile, they 
got it into the stream and brought over their pro- 
visions. The Salimonie continued so high that 
it was nine days before the team could be brought 
home. Thus ended one of the severest trials ear- 
ly settlers are ever called to endure. 

The only visitor Mary Brooks had while living 
on the prairie was Mrs. Hannah Lewallen, from 
Ridgeville, who came twenty-four miles on those 
occasions, which, as Fanny Fern says, "involve 
the increase of the census." At one time Miss 


Barbary Quick came to work for them, walking 
■with Mr. Brooks twcnty-fonr miles in one day. 
This great distance from any settlement was at 
all times, especially in cases of sickness, a serious 
inconvenience. Once one of the children was 
very sick. All the curativ^e arts which a mother 
always knows seemed of no avail, aud they began 
to fear their wilderness flower was to be taken from 
them. John Brooks set out on foot for Fort 
Wayne, the nearest place where medicine could 
then be obtained. He performed the journey in 
two days and nights, and on his return found the 
child better, and it was soon well. 

The second person born in the county, and the 
first who is yet living, was Allen Brooks, March 
4th, 1824. He still lives in Jay, and is a respect- 
able citizen. The next one was William Brooks, 
October 20th, 1825. 

While Mr. Brooks was trading with the Indians 
he went to the Big Miami, in Ohio, for some 
things, and brought back a barrel of apples, which 
he took to Fort Wayne and sold at a very high 
price. Saving seven choice ones, he brought them 
home to his wife. Like a prudent woman, she 
saved the seeds and planted them. They came up 
nicely, and Mary was so proud of her little nurs- 
ery that she visited it nearly every day. But of 
this and what came of it more hereafter. 

John Brooks was delighted with the country on 


Brooks' Creek around wliere they camped on the 
way out, and always said he would enter land 
there. The place was then called Cherry Grove. 
As they had lived on the prairie about two years 
and a half, and no settlers had come in, they 
determined to move to Cherry Grove, which would 
bring them within twelve miles of the Ridgeville 

Early in the spring Mr. Brooks hired a man 
named Richard Swain for one jnonth. He was a 
traveler. The two men went to Cherry Grove, 
built two "half-faced" camps, and cleared a small 
spot of ground, where Mary Brooks' orchard now 
stands. "Half-faced" camps, as they were called, 
must be mentioned frequently in this work, and 
should be described. Generally, they were made 
thus : poles were cut, and built up at one end in 
the form of a log house, while the other end was 
left open, and the end of the poles placed between 
posts which were withed together. The whole 
M^as covered with clapboards. The open end was 
the highest, and answered the purpose of door, 
window and fireplace. This fashion was often 
changed in some particulars. Sometimes the 
back end was built against a large log, and poles 
only on the sides. Frequently the roof was only 
brush or bark. Hunters' camps were still less 
substantial. Four forked poles were driven into 
the ground, connected at the top by other poles 


laid across and covered with bark, while brush 
was pilej:l around the sides. Sometimes the bet- 
ter class of camps were supplied with bark floors. 
These were of course only intended to aflbrd a 
shelter for the family until a cabin could be 

The Brooks camp was covered with bark, and 
the sun soon curled it up until it was very little 
protection against rain. But Mr. Brooks soon 
built a cabin and moved his family into more 
comfortable quarters. He cleared three acres of 
ground, and planted it in corn that spring. He 
also resumed his usual employment of trading 
with the Indians, hunting and trapping. At one 
lime he took one hundred and eighteen raccoon 
skins to Fort Wayne and sold them. He always 
preferred teaming to hunting, and after the coun- 
try became somewhat settled, that was his chief 

These years passed slowly and drearily' for 
Mary Brooks. Her husband was absent most of 
the time ; she had no neighbor with whom to ex- 
change visits, and the calls of Indians or travelers 
were few. It seemed to her as if she was caged 
in a wilderness, out of which she could not even 
see, much less escape. Much of the time she was 
sad and lonely. Her heart yearned for society and 
friends. And no wonder, for she lived there seven 
years loithout seeing any other house than hei' 


own! Think of that, village mothers, whose 
neighbors, within a few steps from your door, are 
counted by scores ! Think of that, farmers' 
wives, the music of whose ringing farm-bell is 
answered by the sweet chimes of half-a-dozen 
neighboring ones ! Seven years in the wilder- 
ness, without neighbors ! Though the Israelites 
were kept in the wilderness, they had their whole 
tribe of relatives for company. 

But she had other trials. While living in this 
lonely condition, a man named George Porter and 
family, now a resident of Blackford County, 
moved through there and settled oa the prairie by 
the Godfrey Farm. This made no nearer neigh- 
bors, for it was twelve miles there ; but Porter 
and Brooks would sometimes go after provisions 
together. One time they went to Newport, 
Wayne County, on this errand. As was frequent- 
ly the case, they were unexpectedly detained sev- 
eral days, and Mrs. Brooks, with five children, 
found she was entirely out of flour or meal. She 
had plenty of cheese, milk and sugar, and upon 
these they lived for three days. They suflfered 
much, especially the children, until Mr. Por- 
ter came along with some meal, which Mr. 
Brooks, who was a long distance behind, had sent 
forward. Mrs. Brooks tells of a similar occur- 
rence at Ridge ville, while Mr. Lewallen was 
building the first mill at that place. He had a 


number of hands at work, av/i orot entirely out of 
Hour and meal. The hands were called together, 
and Mr. Lewallen stated the case to them. They 
were all so anxious to get the mill done, the}^ said 
they would work without bread while he went to 
mill. The}^ did so, and worked a whole week 
without bread ! They had, how^ever, plenty of 
meat, potatoes and squashes. 

Mrs. Brooks had carefully taken up her apple 
tree nursery on the prairie, and set it out at 
Cherry Grove. There were thirty-three in all, 
and when they reached the proper size, she had 
them set out as an orchard. This pioneer orchard 
grew rapidly, and by the time the country was 
being generally settled, bore an abundance of fine 
fruit. To this da}'' thirty-one of those trees are 
living, still luxuriant and prolific. They are now 
extraordinarily large trees. The body of one, two 
feet above the ground, measures five feet and two 
inches in circumference, while the top spreads out 
to forty feet in diameter. The body of another is 
five feet in circumference, and the top forty-four 
feet in diameter. The writer measured them in 
December, 1861. At that time the joists in front 
of Mrs. Brooks' fireplace were hanging full of nice 
drying apples, while a basket of the beautiful 
fruit was sitting near to regale the visitor. That 
year, while most orchards failed, she had a boun- 
tiful supply. It is the oldest orchard in Jay 


County, and for thirty years those mammoth ap- 
ple trees have rewarded a hundred foki her early 
foresight and care. This is what came of the 
seven choice apples. 

Ahoat the year 1833 a man named William 
Van Sickle and his family came through there 
from Muncie, on their way to Fort Wayne. As 
he was out of money, he concluded to stop a short 
time at Cherry Grove. Accordingly he built a 
cabin and staid there three years. This was the 
lirst white neighbor Mrs. Brooks had had for ten 
years ; but they were mere sojourners, and moved 
away again. 

At last, after long years of waiting and hoping, 
settlers began to move in with their families, their 
industry and their civilization. The wilderness 
now began to look like a neighborhood, and Mary 
Brooks was greatly rejoiced. The first one who 
moved near them was Mr. Adam Zeigler, who 
settled within on6 mile and a half. Mrs. Brooks 
was so delighted to have a neighbor, she thought 
it was but a "few steps" to Mr. Zeigler's. 

John Brooks died on the 4th of February 1844, 
of dropsy. Kev. George C. Whiteman preached 
the funeral sermon, and Mr. Timothy Stratton was 
Administrator of the estate. Thus departed the 
tirst man who became a permanent resident of 
Jay County. 

Mrs. Brooks still lives in widowhood, in a log 


house built by her husband, in the southeast cor- 
ner of Knox Township.* She is the mother of 
eleven children. Three of lier sons were born 
March 4th, viz. : 1824, '27, '31. She is now in 
her sixty-fourth year. Her life has been rough 
and wild, and full of privations and suffering, yet 
she retains more of womanhood than could rea- 
sonably be expected. While giving the author 
these sketches, the painful recollections they 
brought up often caused her to weep. Let us 
honor her as the oldest inhabitant of Jay County 
still living within its limits. 

* See map. 




Several years after Peter Studabaker left his 
cabin on the Wabash at New Corydon, Orman 
Perring and family came there, making the third 
family of settlers in the county. The exact date 
of his arrival is not known. Mrs. Studabaker 
gives it as about 1826. The "first cabin," how- 
ever, was already gone. It had been pulled 
down, a few logs at a time, and made into rafts on 
which travelers crossed the river. Mr. Perring 
lived there until about 1837, when he moved 
down the Wabash. He lived chiefly hy hunting 
and keeping travelers who passed that way. 

On the 8th day of March, 1829, two families 
moved into Jay County and settled on a beautiful 
bank at the forks of the Little Salimonie. The 


men, Johtn J. Hawkins and George Tucker, had 
been out the fall before luokinij^ fur land, and con- 
cluding to settle on the Saliinouie,had built three 
half-faced camps, and now brought their families 
to them. 

It was the first warm, beautiful spring day, and 
all nature seemed waking from its winter slum- 
ber. It was an appropriate time for the settle- 
ment of a pioneer family. The foundations of 
rugged Winter were breaking up, and mild, 
charming Spring was delightfully rei?uming her 
sway. So these families had broken away from 
the busy, selfish, conventional society of an old- 
settled country, to enjoy the freedom and warm- 
heartedness of the wilderness. They came from 
Eaton, Preble County, Ohio, and though the dis- 
tance was but fifty miles, it took them eight days. 
Their camps were built against the side of an im- 
mense log, covered with bark, the cracks stuffed 
with moss, and the front end open for a fireplace. 
The "Recollections, by J. C. Hawkins," speak- 
ing of this, says : " That fire-place was ' as big as 
all out doors,' and it was easy to suit our fires to 
the changes of weather. If it was warm, we 
could use a bundle of sticks that a boy could car- 
ry; if it was cold, we could put on several cords 
at a time, and have plenty of room for more." 
Their " back-logs" and "fore-sticks" were drawn 
to the fireplace by the team. 


Mr. Hawkins and his family were delighted 
with the country ; but Mrs. Tucker was so much 
dissatisfied with it that she soon prevailed on her 
husband to move back to the old settlement, leav- 
ing their neighbors alone in the wilderness. 

As the Hawkins family were so intimately con- 
nected with the early history of the country, a 
sketch of them will be in place here : The ances- 
tors of John J. Hawkins emigrated from England 
early in the 18th century, and settled on the 
Shenandoah River, in the Colony of Yirgiuia. 
They were slaveholders, and spent their time in 
horse-racing and fox-hunting with hounds. They 
were descendants of Sir John Hawkins, of whom 
Blake's "History of Slavery and the Slave 
Trade" says: 

" Sir John Hawkins was the first Englishman 
who transported slaves from Africa to America. 
This Was in 1562. His adventures are recorded 
by Hokluyt, a cotemporary historian. He sailed 
from England in October, 1562, for Sierra Leone, 
and in a short time obtained possession of 300 ne- 
groes, partly by the sword and partly by other 
means. He proceeded directly to Hispaniola, and 
exchanged his cargo for hides, ginger, sugar, &c., 
and arrived in England after an absence of eleven 
months. The voyage was very prosperous, and 
brought great profit to the adventurers." 

From the family of one of the four brothers 
sprang Samuel Hawkins, who at the age of sixteen 


ran away from home and engaged in the Revolu- 
tionary War. At the close of the war he married 
Christian Worthington, joined a company of emi- 
grants, and settled in Bourbon County, Kentucky, 
and was engaged in the Indian Wars, and after 
General Wayne's treaty came to the Ohio Terri- 
tory, was the first white man who moved across 
the Miami, and soon after settled where the town 
of Eaton, Ohio, now stands. When the war of 
1812 broke out he became a colonel. A call was 
made for thirty-days' volunteers, to go to the relief 
of Fort Wayne, which was besieged by the In- 
dians. He went, and when within about nine 
miles of the place he was, through a mistake, shot 
by one of his own men, which terminated his life 
in about one year afterward. His son, John J. 
Hawkins, was born in Bourbon County, Ken- 
tucky, on the 25th of September, 1789. He mar- 
ried Nancy Sellers, and at that time could neither 
read nor write ; but his wife became his instructor, 
and he soon possessed sufficient business qualifica- 
tions to be elected Sherifi" of Preble County, in 
which capacity he served for two terms with 
popularity. In some speculations he lost his 
property, and sought a home in the wild lands of 
Indiana. In the war of 1812 he was a lieutenant, 
and had been a scout through the country border- 
ing on the Mississinewa, and had visited it after- 
ward on hunting excursions. His wife, Nancy 


Hawkins, was the daughter of Nathan Sellers, of 
Irish descent, and was born in the celebrated 
county of Bourbon, Kentucky, on the 4th of June, 
1T89, to which place her father had moved from 

Nathan Sellers served in the Revolutionary 
"War, and distinguished himself in the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown. While in Ken- 
tucky he became a magistrate, and finally Sherifi", 
which office he resigned because of the inhuman- 
ity of the laws he had to execute. A common 
mode of punishing negroes there was to nail their 
ears to posts, and then whip them ! Although 
offered one thousand dollars per year for the dep- 
utyship, he refused to have anything to do with 
the execution of such laws. He was strongly 
opposed to slavery, and seeing no prospect of its 
abolition in Kentucky, he moved to Ohio in 1809, 
and in 1826 died as he lived, a consistent Chris- 
tian. Several of the ancestors of Nancy Haw- 
kins served with Daniel Boone in the war with 
the Indians, and were victims to the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife. 

There were six children in the Hawkins family 
when they reached Jay County, as follows : Sam- 
uel, the oldest, then aged eighteen, Nathan B., 
Benjamin "W., A valine (afterward the wife of 
James Simmons, of Eandolph County), Joseph 
C, and Caroline (now the wife of B. W. Clark). 



As soon a~ they were settled in their camps, with- 
out waiting to build a cabin, Nancy Hawkins says, 
" every one old enough to pick a stick went to 
work to clear some land." They cleared and 
planted that spring about seven acres, and raised 
a fine crop of corn and garden vegetables. Though 
they had but three dollars in cash when they 
arrived, they managed to secure an abundance of 
the necessaries of life. 

During the summer and next winter Mr. Haw- 
kins spent much of his time in hunting. Killing 
game was one of the principal means of support 
for all the earliest settlers. It provided meat for 
their families, and the sale of skins and furs sup- 
plied them with money. In October Mr. Haw- 
kins built a comfortable cabin, and moved into it, 
having lived in the camp fof eight months. On 
the last day of the year he went hunting, and 
killed three deer near together. " After dressing 
them, he hung the two largest without difficulty ; 
the third being a small one, he did not . ke the 
necessary pains to fix a suitable place, an while 
endeavoring to slide it up the side of a tree with 
a fork which proved to be too limber, it fell and 
wrenched liim severely in the chest. He was not 
alarmed at first, but hoping further success, he 
returned slowly homeward, and as he had become 
warm by his exertions, he took a violent cold, and 
his feelings were such as to convince him that his 


work was done."* From that time forward he 
declined. lie went to Eaton, and remained sev- 
eral months, receiving the best medical attention, 
but it was of no avail. His physicians told him 
his case was hopeless. Finding that his days were 
numbered, he was very anxious to return home 
and die in his cabin with his family. After his 
return an Indian called Doctor Duck exhausted 
all his Indian arts to cure him, but in vain. He 
died on the 15th of March, 1832. Thomas Shay- 
lor and Joseph Williamson, a young man who 
lived with him, dug the grave, assisted by the 
orphan boys. The next day he was buried. Those 
present from this county were Thomas Shaylor, 
William Brockus and Philip Brown, and their 
wives, and Joseph Williamson. A few persons 
from Randolph County were also present. That 
was the first death and burial among the early 
residents in Jay County. 

The grave was just in front of the cabin, over- 
looking the Salimonie from a high bank, but not 
now alone. Other graves have since been dug 
there to receive the mortal remains of loved ones 
of the family. One son of the pioneer, Judge 
Nathan B. Hawkins, a daughter, Avaline Sim- 
mons, and several grandchildren are sleeping by 
his side. George Bickel, one of the -earliest pio- 

* " Recollections." 



neers, and others, are also buried there. The 
marble shown in the centre of the cut above marks 
the tomb of Mr. Hawkins. The modest inscrip- 
tion is : 



who diedMarchlS, 1833, 

aged 43 years. 

The next stone to the right shows the grave of 
George Bickel. 

The estate was settled up, and ISTancy Hawkins 
had just one hundred dollars' worth of property 
left her ; but this pittance, coupled with her own 


perseverance and fortitude, and the energy of her 
oldest son, Samuel, kept the family together, and 
they prospered. She entered the land by sending 
her son Samuel to Fort Wayne with a yoke of 
oxen of her own raising, which he sold and paid 
for the land. They passed through many hard- 
ships, however, until the country became pretty 
well settled. The boys cleared land, carried mail, 
hunted, and "showed land" to strangers. In 
these pursuits they obtained a comfortable liveli- 
hood. Some incidents which happened while the 
boys were carrying mail will illustrate their love 
of principle as well as one phase of life in Jay 
County in those early days. 



8AMUEL and B. W. Hawkins carried the mail 
by turns, from Winchester»to Fort Wayne, by way 
of Deerfield, Hawkin's Cabin, New Corydon and 
Thompson's Prairie. One evening in the month 
of February, 1834, Samuel reached his mother's 
cabin, on his return from Fort "Wayne, while a 
heavy, snow was falling. It was already about 
ten inches deep, and continued to fall so fast that 
objects could be seen only a few rods from the 
door. It was a dreary night out doors, but the 
family were enjoying themselves around a com- 
fortable cabin fire. A loud rap was heard at the 
door, and, upon its being opened, eight negroes, 
six men and two women, presented themselves 
and begged for a night's lodging. Their request 
was granted. The men were all common looking 
negroes, except one. He was tall, broad-chested, 


very muscular and well proportioned. He 
possessed affable manners, and an intelligent 
countenance, and was the leader of the company. 
One of the women was about twenty years of age 
and very black ; the other was a mulatto, and the 
wife of one of the men. She was thinly clad and 
in feeble health. The canal through Fort Wayne 
was then being dug, and was attracting laborers 
from great distances. This company said they 
were going to work on this canal. The next 
morning they started on their way northward, and 
Samuel Hawkins went on to Winchester with his 
mail. There he learned that the negroes were 
fugitive slaves, and met their pursuers, who had 
been waiting for him. They asked if he had 
" met " the slaves. He replied that he had not. 
This was technically true, but was designed to 
deceive the man-hunters. There were then two 
routes from Fort Wayne to Winchester ; one by 
the way of the Hawkins' Cabin and New Cory don, 
the other by Brooks' and the Godfrey Farm. 
Supposing, from Samuel's reply, that the fugitives 
had not gone this road, the slave-holders took the 
other route, feeling certain that they were on the 
right track. The reward for the apprehension of 
the slaves was^ $1,000, and Samuel Hawkins, by 
simply giving the information in his possession, 
might have taken the money. It was a great 
temptation for one so young and needy, but he 


did not for a moment entertain a thought of be- 
traying the fleeing company. He said if they 
would undertake that long, dangerous and woary- 
soma journey on foot and through the deep snow, 
to gain their " Liberty," he could not lind it in his 
heart to betray them into bondage. lie had the 
feelings of a man in his bosom, and acted accord- 
ingly. A¥hen the pursuers took the wrong track, 
he hastened to return, and overtook the fugitives 
at the Wabash where JNew Corydon now stands. 
The snow was so deep, and progress on foot so 
difficult, that they had only been able to reach 
that distance. Thinking to have some sport, he 
rode up hastily and cried out, "Run for your lives, 
your masters are after you !'' The feeble woman, 
who was several rods behind the others, uttered a 
wild shriek and sank down in a swoon. The men 
were all armed with flint-lock guns, and the first 
word spoken was by their leader, "Look to your 
priming, boys !" then turning to the mail boy, with 
a look of terrible determination, he said : " Young 
man, our blood may be poured out like water, but 
no7ie of us will ever he taken P'' Such firmness 
and daring Samuel Hawkins never before 
saw depicted in a human countenance, and he 
believed it was well for their pursuers that they 
were never overtaken. He hastily corrected his 
deception and told them the facts. Dismounting 
from his horse, the fallen woman was placed upon 


the saddle, and he aided her as far as his time 
would permit, and, giving them directions, he 
returned to his route and never heard of them 
afterward. Perhaps they were George and his 
company, described by Mrs. Stowe in " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin." 

Another similar anecdote is told by B. "W". 

In the fall of 1833, while he was carrying the 
mail, four negroes called at his mother's ta stay 
all night. They were large, fine appearing, well 
dressed young men, carrying gold watches, and had 
plenty of money. They stated that they were 
from Richmond, and were going to Fort Wayne 
to work on the canal. They told their story so 
plausibly that it was believed. The next morn- 
ing, Benjamin set out on horseback for Fort 
"Wayne, with the mail, and the negroes started 
also, traveling leisurely on foot. Upon reaching 
Fort Wayne, the landlord informed the mail boy 
that a gentleman was there, waiting to see him. 
He was taken to the room and introduced to Dr. 
Campbell, of Kentucky, owner of the celebrated 
Warm Springs. Hearing that the boy's name was 
Hawkins, the Dr. entered into a very friendiy 
chat, and asked many questions about the family, 
and soon learned that John J. Hawkins was a 
cousin of his. Thus endeavoring to gain the con- 
fidence of the boy, he said that he was in search 


of four runaway slaves. He described their ap- 
pearance so accurately that Benjamin knew they 
were the ones who had stopped at his home. He, 
however, said nothing. The Doctor went on to 
tell how ungrateful the negroes had been ; that 
they were his musicians for the Springs, and that 
only during the watering season did he ask them 
to do anything, and then only to play for visitors ; 
that all the rest of the year they were allowed to 
go and do as they pleased ; that they went to 
Louisville and other cities, and gave concerts, re- 
ceiving the proceeds themselves, and that they 
were better dressed than their master. "ISTow,^' 
said he, " I am ahead of them ; they left Eichraond 
for this place and are not here yet. They are 
coming on either the Quaker or Godfrey Trace, and 
if you will keep on the lookout on the way back, 
you will likely meet them, and if you will secure 
them and send me word I will pay you 8800 re- 
ward." The doctor kept his cousin mail-boy with 
him in his room that night, and treated him very 
kindly. On his return the next day Benjamin 
thought the matter over thoroughly ; he was poor 
and the money would be a great help to him and 
his mother's family, besides, Dr. Campbell was 
his cousin, and had been a special friend of his 
father, and he need not do anything but send the 
Doctor word. But then, on the other hand, if he 
accepted the money his conscience would not be 


clear. Should lie take $800 for sending four men 
into life-long servitude ? The temptation was very 
great, but this thought settled him in the deter- 
mination not to do an act which would afterward 
make him unhappy. Having decided to do right, 
and supposing he would soon meet the fugitives, 
he went cheerfully forward through the long- 
woods, whistling a favorite tune. He met them 
at Yellow Creek, in Adams County, and told them 
they were in the wrong road. They inquired why. 
He told them they were runaway slaves and that 
their master was at Fort Wayne ready to take 
them when they arrived. They boldly denied 
being slaves, but he told them where they came 
from and who was their master, and they were 
forced to acknowledge the truth. He then said he 
did not believe slavery was right, that he hoped 
they would escape, and that if they would turn 
back a few miles he would put them upon a road 
by which they could go around Foi't "Wayne. 
They were deeply cast down and much alarmed, 
and fearful that he was trying to betray them 
into a trap. But thej finally took his advice, 
and went back with him, walking very rapidly, 
bade their rescuer farewell and took the other 

Seven years afterward, when B. W. Hawkins 
had a family, was living in Portland, and was 
Sherifi:' of Jay County, an uncle of his, named 


Bird Hawkins, from Eaton, Ohio, visited liim, and 
Joseph C. Hawkins was also at his house. This 
Bird Hawkins was a very wealthy, aristocratic 
pro-slavery man, and, finding that J. C. Hawkins 
was a free-soiler, he undertook to show his erring 
nephew the foolishness of such a belief. Joseph 
was always ready for an argument, and so they 
went into a debate. Finding that he w\as not con- 
vincing his young relative of the divinity or 
christianizing influence of slavery, Mr. Hawkins 
said he w^ould give an instance which would show 
beyond question the wickedness of "abolitionism." 
He then related as follows : 

" Last summer I spent the watering season at 
Dr. Campbell's Springs, in Kentucky, and he told 
me of a great loss he had sustained. You know 
he is our cousin and a very nice man. He had 
four well-trained musicians whom he kept in the 
highest style of luxury and ease. They played for 
company during the watering season, and had all 
the rest of the year to travel over the state and 
make large sums of money for themselves. They 
were better clothed than their master, and enjoyed 
all the pleasures the country afforded. But while 
they were giving concerts in Louisville, they 
crossed the Ohio river and escaped into Canada. 
He expended much money in hunting for them, 
and finally got a letter from them saying they had 
landed safely, had joined the king's army, and 


that they would never have left him except that 
at his death thej would have been sold. The 
Doctor immediately set out for Canada, and tried 
by every means in his power to induce them to 
return. He offered to make out their free papers 
in advance, and then pay them a high price if 
they would return to the Springs. He was im- 
mediately arrested and thrown into jail, charged 
with trying to induce the king's soldiers to desert, 
the punishment for which was death. He sent to 
Kentucky for a lawyer, and after much trouble 
and an expense of $1,000, he was released from 
prison and allowed to return home. ]^ow yon 
see how kind Dr. Campbell was to his slaves, and 
how outrageously they treated him." 

Joseph replied that the case was an unanswer- 
able argument for his side of the question ; that it 
showed how strong was the love of freedom in the 
human soul, if these slaves would prefer to leave 
all their luxurious living and endure the hard- 
ships of a soldier's life, tor its sake. 

During the relation of the story, E. W. Haw- 
kins was sitting by, smothering a hearty laugh, 
for it was the first he had heard of the slaves since 
he had left them in the woods, while neither Bird 
nor Joseph knew of the part he had borne in the 

•<'iiiif3kJj ■T;l">''j.i"iv-5'l' jfiir 

%^tn-.n'*«i» ;«liwfriji3- -^-^ li;*?- iS;;-i 'i-ifif I'ljiicMi 



Late in January, 1832, William Simmons, from 
Henry County, Indiana, came to visit liis brother- 
in-law, Thomas Shaylor, who lived on the Salimo- 
nie, three miles above Portland. The weather 
had been very stormy for several days, and the 
snow lay upon the ground ten or twelve inches 
deep. The bushes and limbs of the trees were 
bowed by the weight of snow that hung upon 
them. But a tierce west wind came up, scattered 
the snow, and the weather became extremely 
cold. Mr. Simmons called at the cabin of John 
J. Hawkins, who was then an invalid, and inquir- 
ed the way to Mr. Shaylor's, saying that he would 
return that way the next day. But the next day 



"passed, and lie did not come ; and the Hawkins 
family were uneasy lest their stranger friend had 
got lost and perhaps frozen. On the morning of 
the third day, Mr. Shaylor called at Mr. Haw- 
kins', inquiring for the lost man. He stated that 
Simmons had gone hunting, but had now been 
absent two days and nights. All were much 
alarmed, for in all probability he had become 
bewildered and lost. In the deep snow and 
terrible cold he would perish. Shaylor, who had 
been drinking for several days with some boon 
companions from the Mississinewa, inquired of 
Mr. Hawkins what should be done. The " Eecol- 
lections" by J. C. Hawkins on this point says: 
" Father told him that what they decided to do 
must be done at once, for if the man was lost he 
"was exposed to peril in various ways ; — he might 
have lost his flint or wet his powder, or become 
bewildered, like ' Limber Jim,' or it was possible 
that the wolves might have attacked him. ' Sam,' 
said he, addressing the eldest son, 'you see how 
it is. Shaylor and those other men are not able 
to stand much so soon after their spree ; it there- 
fore remains for you and Edward Simmons to do 
what is to be done. What do you say to it?' His 
answer was, ' I'll make the trial.' 'Well, then,' 
father added, 'get ready; you have no time to 
lose. You need no gun ; take my tomahawk ; — 
your knife is good ; carry several flints and the 


best punk ; set lire occasionally to dry trees, so 
that if you liud him you can carry him to the 
nearest, thereby you will save time. If he is 
benumbed and drowsy, don't bring him too close 
to the lire, but rub him and make him take exer- 
cise. If his feet are much frozen, cut a hole in 
the ice and put them in, or rub them with snow. 
Don't let him eat too much at once. And now 
remember your mother will not expect to see you 
until you can bring tidings of the lost man !' " 

Thus explicitly directed and equij^ped, the 
two young men hastily entered the snowy woods. 
Shaylor and his companions followed a short dis. 
tance, but soon turned back. After traveling 
three or four miles the young men came to his 
track ; following this a short distance, they found 
he had been crossing his own path, and must be 
completely bewildered. About 11 o'clock they 
found him. He was in a terrible condition. He 
was slowly dragging himself along, both his feet 
being badly frozen and burned. He would put 
his stick forward and then draw himself up to it. 
In this way the poor man was endeavoring to 
save his life. He was so exhausted by hunger, 
exposure and suffering that, had not help reached 
him, he would soon have lain down and perished. 
The sight of the young men greatly rejoiced him, 
foi' he hoped to be restored to his family. He was 
found on the knoll where Liber College now 


stands, between the college building and the de- 
lightful Spring on the bank of the Little Salimo- 
nie. He immediately asked for something to eat, 
and the rescuers happening to have an ear -of 
corn with them, parched it for him. 

After hunting imtil it was time to return, he 
had gone down Butternut to the Salimonie, intend- 
ing to take up stream to the mouth of the Little 
Salimonie, and then up that to Shaylor's. The 
mouth of the Little Salimonie is very narrow — 
like a small run — and coming to this, he thought 
it could not be the place, and passed on up the 
Big Salimonie, one or two miles above Portland. 
Finding that he had missed the way, he returned, 
and when he reached the little prairie opposite 
where Thomas Jones now lives, he was too much 
exhausted to proceed further. lie then tried to 
strike fire, but his flint entirely failed. He soon 
found his feet were freezing. He cleared away 
the snow, and by dancing around managed to 
keep awake all night. Early the next morning 
he again tried his flint, and the flrst stroke made 
fire. In thawing his shoes he burned his frozen 
feet terribly, and could not again put on his shoes. 
He then made a pair of mocassins from the skin 
of a wolf he had killed the day before. He left 
his gun, and, with the help of a staff, dragged 
himself along ; found the mouth of the Little Sal- 
imonie, and was going up the stream when found 


by the young men. He was immediately taken 
to his home, where one leg and the toes and heel 
of the other were amputated. He lived for many 
years, and afterward revisited the county. 



Nancy Hawkins is still living, and is now sev- 
enty-five 3'ears of age. She is in good health, 
active and lively. Unusual energy, unfaltering 
devotion to right principles, and lull-hearted hos- 
pitality are, as they always have been, her distin- 
guishing characteristics. She is a passionate lover 
of home, and has impressed this trait of character 
upon all her children. She still lives upon the 
" Old Home Farm," where she and her husband 
first settled, and until within the last year in the 
log cabin built by him in 1829, ' She is never so 
contented as when enjoying the genial warmth of 
that great fire-place. Of this institution, so cher- 
ished in Jay County — the crowning charm of all 
log cabins — we heartily adopt the language of 
Mrs, Stowe, in her "House and Home Papers:" 



" Best of all, there was in our parlor that household altar, 
the blazing wood-fire, whose wholesome, hearty crackle is 
the truest household inspiration. I quite agree with one 
celebrated American author, who holds that an open fire- 
place is an altar of patriotism. Would our Revolutionary 
fathers have gone bare-footed and bleeding over snows to 
defend air-tight stoves and cooking-ranges ? I trow not. It 
was the memory of the great, open kitchen fire, with its back- 
log and fore-stick of cord-wood— its roaring, hilarious voice 
of invitation — its dancing tongue of flame, that called to 
them through the snows of that dreadful winter to keep up 
their courage, that made their hearts warm and bright with 
a thousand reflected memories." 


That cabin is the oldest one now standing, and 
the fourth one built in Jay County, and will never 
be torn down while the farm remains in the Haw- 


kins family. Ambrotypes of it, with Nancy's 
several children and grandchildren, and the old 
rocking chair in front, have been taken, and are 
in possession of the family. The cut above rep- 
resents the old lady standing at the door, though 
the likeness is not truthful except as to her size. 
Tlie boy near her is a grandchild. Just beyond 
the cabin, at the foot of the hill, a spring, over- 
hung with beautiful shade trees, issues from the 
banks, and the cool water finds its way to the 
Salimonie through that family favorite, a spring- 
house. She lately told the writer that if they 
would only fix the old house so it would not let in 
the rain, she would much prefer living in it than 
in the new one. A beautiful farm house, erected 
by B. W". Hawkins, now stands beside it. 

Oh, the old house at home, where my forefathers dwelt, 

Where a child at the feet of my mother I knelt ; 

"Where she taught me the prayer, where she read me the page 

Which if infancy lisps is the solace of age : ^^ 

My heart 'raid all changes, wherever I roam, 

Ne'er loses its love for the old house at home. 


The old house at home, the old house at home ; 
My heart never changes for the old house at home. 

'Twas not for its splendor that dwelling was dear — 
'Twas not that the gay and the noble were near ; — 
O'er tlie porch the wild rose and the woodbine entwined. 
And the sweet-scented jessamine waved in the wind ; 


But dearer to me than proud turret or dome, 

Were the halls of my fathers— the old house at home. 


Though now the old house is no dwelling for me, 

The home of the stranger it never shall be ; 

And ne'er shall he view it, or rove as a guest 

O'er the evergreen fields which my fathers possessed ; 

For still in my slumbers sweet visions will come 

Of the days that I passed at the old house at home. 


When he was elected County Clerk, in 1859, 
he persuaded his mother to live with him one 
winter ; but when the willows put forth their 
earliest leaves, the bright green grass was peeping 
from door-yards and fence-corners, and the first 
gleeful chirping of the spring-birds was heard, 
she went back to the farm, and the fairest tempta- 
tions of town life cannot induce her to leave it 
again. The farm is a rich and beautiful one, lying 
just at the forks of the Little Salimonie, half a 
mile froA the village of Autioch 

One time the dogs caught a deer near the house, 
when Mrs. Hawkins and Mrs. Shaylor were the 
only occupants. They took the axe and went to 
assist the dogs, which held the animal down, bat 
with his fore-feet and horns he would light very 
briskly. Whenever there was an opportunity the 
ladies would give the deer a blow with the poll of 
the axe. But this style of warfare served only 


to exasperate. Changing the plan of attack, they 
took the edge and gave " hard blows and fast," to 
which the deer soon yielded, and after skinning 
and quartering, the lady hunters carried it home. 

The Indians were the only neighbors of the 
Hawkins family for several years. The tribes 
who were in the habit of visiting this region were 
the Miamies, Wyandottes, Pottawatamies, Sena- 
cas and Shawnees. The two latter were very 
friendly. They came in the fall to hunt, and in 
the spring to trap. While passings through one 
time an Indian boy stole an axe. About three 
months afterwards they returned, and the boy's 
father brought the axe back, saying, "My boy 
stole hira. No good boy !" 

If they found Mr. Hawkins' ducks far from the 
house, they would drive them home, and some- 
times they would find his cow mired in some 
swamp several miles distant, when they would 
come and inform him, pilot some one to the spot, 
and assist in releasing the animal. By such little 
acts of kindness they showed their friendly feel- 
ing toward the white family. 

Once an Indian called on Peter Studabaker, at 
Fort Recovery, and told him that a very rich man 
had moved into the county, meaning John J. 
Hawkins. Studakaker inquired ;vvhether he had 
many horses and cattle. " Ko," said the Indian, 
"he got heap of children and thirteen dog !" It 


was the source of much laughter among the 

All early settlers are familiar with the name of 
the old Indian, Doctor Duck, who remained in 
the country a long time after his tribe had emi- 
grated to Kansas. He showed much skill in the 
treatment of diseases, but could not cure Mr. Haw- 
kins, with whom he lived for six months. He 
was very religious, and often appeared to be pray- 
ing to the Great Spirit. One time he attended 
preaching near Deerfield, after which there was a 
church trial of an offending member. The old 
Indian listened attentively until there was some 
conflicting testimony, when he went to the door, 
turned round and said to the meeting, " Me go ; 
no much good here — too much lie." 

About two weeks after Mr, Hawkins died this 
Indian went alone to the grave, and there spent 
nearly half a day, apparently preaching and per- 
forming wild ceremonies. During the year 1835 
B. W. Hawkins was employed by a Greenville 
firm to buy furs, at forty dollars per month and 
expenses paid. He visited ten counties, and pur- 
chased of the Indians, in one lot, fifteen hundred 
dollars' worth. His employers had offered to 
their agents that the one buying the best lot of 
furs should be presented with a new suit of 
clothes. Mr. liawkins got the suit, from boots 
to hat. 



Sketches liave now been given of the first four 
families who became residents of Jay County. 
On this account they are given in detail, and, 
also, because Pioneer Life can be most truthfully 
sketched by a correct history of several individ- 
ual families. In the lives of these families, all 
pioneers can see likenesses of their own. Yet the 
experience of no two are exactly similar. What 
golden threads of history might be unraveled at 
every family hearth-stone ! What family's history 
would not be full of thrilling interest, were the 
silver chords of love, and hidden currents of 
smiles and tears, joys and sorrows, revealed ? 
Put these are too sacred for the public eye. The 
limits of this volume admit only of specimens of 
Pioneer Life. Henceforward families will be 
mentioned only in more general terms, and the 


events of public history more closely grouped. 

At the opening of the year 1830, from the low 
chimneys of but three humble cabins the blue 
smoke curled gracefully above the tall, vast forests 
surrounding them, to mark the beginning of 
civilized life in Jay County, As a few bright 
stars appear first at evening, and, as the night 
draws on, multitudes glitter in the sky, so these 
families — "stars of empire" — were the front 
lights of that thronging civilization that is follow- 
ing. They were Orman Perring, John [Brooks 
and tlie Hawkins family. At that time, although 
Brooks had been a settler there for eight years, 
the others knew nothing of him, nor did he of 
them. Thus dimly did the light of civilization 
shine in that region at the opening of this decade. 

In the spring of 1830, James Stone and Wil- 
liam Cummings visited Ft. Recovery. They knew 
Peter Studabaker, for, three years prior, while on a 
visit to the St. Joseph country, they had enjoyed 
his hospitality. They selected land in Noble 
Township and went to work, planted corn, killed 
large numbers of deer and found many bee-trees. 
Greatly pleased with the country, when autumn 
began to tinge the forest with yellow, Mr. Stone 
brought his family from Gallia County, Ohio. 
This time he was accompanied by Henderson 
Graves, who had married his daughter the even- 
ing before starting. William B. Lipps was living 

TJSE PI0NEEK8 OF 1830. 75 

near there at that time, but how long he had been 
there is not known. Stone bought him out and 
he moved to Greenville. 

The two families lived in a camp about six 
weeks, then built a cabin. In October, John J. 
Hawkins came there, hunting some cattle, and 
they learned, for the first time, that they had a 
neighbor within six miles. 

The country abounded in such luxuries as tur- 
keys, venison and honey. The greatest dithculty 
was the want of a mill, there being none nearer 
than Greenville. But Peter Studabaker dressed 
a couple of " gray heads," and constructed a horse 
mill which served the neighborhood for some years 
as a corn-grinder. This mill was turned by a 
"tug" instead of cogs, which was made of raw 
cowhide. In dry or frozen weather the tug would 
contract and become too short, and in wet weather 
stretch and get too long. Corn was raised in 
abundance, with but little work. In 1831 James 
Stone sowed 1^ bushels of wheat on 1^ acres of 
ground. "When [harvest time was at hand, the 
blackbirds came by thousands, and destroyed 
much of it ; yet he got 37^ bushels. He 
was the first settler in what afterward became 
Noble Township, and entered the first piece of 
land ever entered in Jay County, November 9th, 
1832. He had this honor, however, by but one 
day, as Thomas Scott entered forty acres the next 


day. He was an enterprising, industrious citizen, 
and died in the spring of 1848. 

Thomas Scott came soon after Stone, remained 
a few years and moved to Texas, where he died. 

Henderson Graves says that about this time, he 
and Conaway Stone cut a bee-tree, and, to their 
great surprise, found two swarms in it, from which 
they got ten gallons of strained honey. At an- 
other time when they were hunting, and at some 
distance apart, both shot at the same deer, at the 
same instant, neither one hearing the report of the 
other's rifle, and each fatally wounded the animal. 
These settlers saw that sublime phenomenon of 
the shooting stars, which occurred in 1833. 

In October, 1830, a boy fifteen years old, and 
small of his age, started from his father's house in 
Darke County, Ohio, on horseback, to select a 
piece of land for their future home. He stopped 
for the night three miles north of Fort Recovery, 
with David Beardslee, who desired that they 
should settle near him. But the boy's father in- 
structed him not to select land near another fam- 
ily, for near neighbors were apt to quarrel. Tak- 
ing a bridle path which Orman Perring had made 
from Fort Recovery to the Wabash, he followed 
it till he came to the land which was afterward the 
farm of the late Elder Ebeuezer Drake. Dis- 
mounting, he hitched his horse, blazed a path 
to the Liniberlost, and returned just before night. 


Hoppling his horse and putting a bell on him, he 
let him loose. Then, lighting a lire, he lay down 
by it, on some bark, and, without even a blanket, 
slept soundly. The next day he built a half-faced 
camp, (which he called " a three-ended cabin,") 
justliigh enough for the boy to stand up in, -and 
in that he ate and slept for two weeks, as happy 
as a lark, seeing no one except Indians, and an 
occasional traveler on the Quaker trace. The In- 
dians were very good-natured and familiar. He 
traded a pint of whiskey to one of them for a ham 
of venison. Asking what w^ould he take it in, the 
Indian took a deer's bladder, still wai-m, from his 
breast, and received the drink in that. The 
wolves would come around the camp every night 
and howl terribly. The youth would sometimes 
get up and stir the fire in order to see them, but 
could not. That boy was Hamilton Gibson. He 
was building a cabin for his father's (William 
Gibson's,) family. William W. Dole, Peter 
Studabaker and three others from Fort Re- 
covery helped raise the cabin, which was the 
third one in Wabash Township. The next 
month William Gibson and his family came, 
his daughter Jane, now the wife of Samuel 
Arbaugh, being the housekeeper, her mother hav- 
ing died in Ohio. After Hamilton was married 
and had fifteen acres cleared, a man attempted 
to enter the land, and so cheat him out of his im- 


provements. Tins was a common and shameful 
method by which speculators defrauded the indus- 
trious early settlers out of their homes and the 
fruits of their labor. Afriend loaned him $50, and 
without one cent to pay his expenses, he went on 
foot to Fort Wayne, and saved his home. 

One winter Hamilton went with a team and sled 
into Ohio after provisions, to procure which was 
a source of great labor and inconvenience to all 
the pioneers. When he was crossing Still Water 
the ice broke and let him into the stream. Un- 
hitching the horses, he tied them to a tree, and 
went to a neighbor's and staid all night. In the 
morning the stream had risen so that he could not 
get in sight oi his horses, and they had to stand 
there nearly two days and nights before the water 
subsided ! 

In those early times Mr. Gibson was quite a 
hunter — has hunted four days without seeing a 
house. At night, in the winter, he would build 
two log heaps, set them on fire and sleep between 
them on bark. At one time, hunting a horse that 
had a bell on, he did no't find it until it was too 
dark to go home. He mounted the animal and 
let her go, but, after traveling two hours, she 
came back to the place from which thej^ started. 
Dismounting, he lay down at the roots of a tree, 
without a fire, sung awhile, and went to sleep, 
not waking until the morning sunlight was stream- 


ing through the forest. Reaching home, he found 
his wife had been lisrhtinoi: tire from the fences 
nearly all night, and was very anxious for his 
safety. This was the year to take the census, 
and Judge Jer. Smith, of Winchester, then 
quite a young man, was appointed Assistant 
Marshal of Randolph County and the terri- 
tory attached thereto, extending northward to 
the line between Congressional Townships 25 and 
26. This was the dividing line of the territory 
attached to the counties of Randolph and Allen, 
respectively, they being the only counties then or- 
ganized between the north line of Wayne County 
and the north line of the State. J^ear the close 
of the summer Mr. Smith came to the Salimonie, 
census-taking. Had he desired to enumerate the 
rich bee-trees, the droves of beautiful deer, the 
families of bears and wolves, with which the for- 
ests were then populous, the result would have 
ranked the county among the first in the State. 
But he found human beings and the products of 
labor scarce indeed. While following a trace, in 
search of some inhabitants, he met Samuel Haw- 
kins, and took from him the census of that family, 
and learned that there were two other families in 
the region. 

Thus resulted the census of Jay County for 
1830. Could we peer into the dark unknown be- 
yond us, and compare with these the census re- 


turns of 1930, when we, who now make the life 
of the county, shall all be gone, and our beloved 
forests and then- delightful haunts for game have 
faded ^before a busier — perhaps not better — civi- 
lization, and when other men and women, other 
enterprises and interests, occupy the places we 
now. hold — with what strange, intense interest 
would we look upon the exhibit ! 



During these years new settlers came very 
slowly. So, at least, thought the small " advance 
guard" of pioneers who were waiting and hoping 
for neighbors to come in, and the germs of socie- 
ty to spring up around them. It was in the au- 
tumn of 1831 that the tinkling of the cow-bell and 
the sound of the white man's axe first broke the 
wild stillness of w^hat, four years later, became 
Madison Township. John Eblin and William 
Denne}', with their families, settled there at that 
time, and were the first settlers in the township. 
By coming together, they avoided much of that 
dreariness and many of the severer trials which 
met those families who lived their first years in 
the county alone amid the wild woods, wild men 
and ferocious beasts. However, they passed 
through those privations which necessarily follow 


the pioneer iii his aggressions upon the territory 
hitlierto the home of the aborigines. William 
Denney lived upon the land he entered, having 
done his part toward the development of the coun- 
try by opening a large farm, until a few years 
since, when he died. John Eblin also cleared a 
line farm, then moved into the Osage country, in 
Missouri, where, being an unflinching lover of the 
Union, he became a victim of rebel hate, and lost 
his property, being obliged to flee to Iowa, where 
he died in 1863. 

'Not long after these men moved in. Con away 
Stone built a cabin near where Mr. Abraham Lotz 
now lives ; but soon moved across into Noble 
To\ynship. About this time, also, Henry Crowell 
and John Fox settled there, making quite a 

It was during this year (1831) that Thomas 
Shaylor moved into the county, occupying the 
vacated " shanties " of Mr. Hawkins until he 
could build a cabin. This he did upon a branch 
of the Salimonie, on what was afterward the Har- 
dy Farm, now the property of Lieutenant C. II. 
Clark. In 1833 Mr. Shaylor moved down the Sal- 
imonie, and became the first settler in Green 

In E"ovembcr, 1831, Mrs. Sarah Riddley — a 
woman who, during her lifetime, was the wife of 
seven ditferent husbands — settled with her family 


in the southeast corner of Pike Township. Be- 
side the enterprising settlement in Madison Town- 
ship and the coming of Mr. Shaylor and Mrs. 
liiddley, there were no other additions to the 
meagre population of the county during that year. 
Mr. Philip Brown was the first to arrive in the 
new country in 1832. He came March 8th, 
and built a cabin just across the road from the 
north side of Liber, on the southwest corner of the 
farm now owned by Dr. D. Milligan. It was the 
first house built in Wayne Township. Though 
the cabin has long since been gone, until lately a 
solitary peach tree had marked the spot ; but now 
nothing remains to remind the passer-by of the 
place where it stood. The next year, when Brown 
had quite a comfortable improvement made, 
James Wier was passing through the country 
looking for land. Being much pleased. , with 
Brown's place, and learning that it was not en- 
tered, he told him that he (Wier) had entered the 
land. As it was then termed. Brown had 
" squatted upon Congress-land," and had not yet 
been able to purchase it. But now, by this unfair 
• ^means, he must be driven from a spot he began 
to call home, to commence again in the woods. 
He was greatly enraged, and made some threats • 
against Wier, who went to Randolph County and 
swore his life against Brown. A constable named 
Robert Parsons came into the settlement and 


summoned B. "VV. Hawkins and Joseph William- 
son to assist him in the arrest of Brown, who, 
meantime, had started to Fort Recovery. The 
settlers in the neighborhood sympathized with 
Brown, and would do every thing to aid him, for 
they were all mutually interested in seeing that 
the rights of all " squatter sovereigns " were 
maintained against the speculating land-sharks. 
The constable and his "aids" followed Brown's 
track, the deputies taking care that their progress 
should be very slow. They found John R. Maj's 
and his boys grubbing near their house. Haw- 
kins asked some rather indirect questions about 
Brown, at the same time giving Mays the "wink," 
who, knowing the circumstances, gave the consta- 
ble the impression that if Brown was not already, 
he soon would be, in Ohio ; at the same time pri- 
vately informing Hawkins that Brown was then in 
the house eating dinner ! Hawkins then put in 
the plea that, it being Saturday afternoon, they 
might not catch Brown before the Sabbath. The 
constable replied that it was " State's busineBs," 
and he should pay no attention to the Sabbath. 
After other arguments, which did not change the 
purpose of the constable, the deputies declared'* 
they would go no further unless their expenses 
;^ere borne. This led the constable to/abandcn 
the chase and return home, while the de^Duties 
went to the house to congratulate Brown. This 


was the first attempt ever made in Jay County to 
enforce the law. Soon after this Brown and Wier 
compromised by the latter agreeing to pay the 
former for the improvements made on the land. 
Wier then went to work and built a cabin on the 
northeast of what is now College corner. B. W. 
Hawkins was carrying the mail, and the next trip 
he examined the records, and ascertained that 
"Wier's story was entirely false. On his return he 
at once notified Brown of his discovery. But 
Brown had no money and no saleable property 
except one horse. The neighbors showed their 
generosity by making up $20 for him, and mount- 
ing his horse, he set out for Fort "Wayne. He 
went to Colonel Samuel Hanna, told him the cir- 
cumstances", and offered his horse for $30. Learn- 
ing that it was the only horse the stranger had, 
Hanna^ told him to keep it, loaned him the 
money,, took him home with him for the night, 
and next day Brown, having entered the land, 
went on his way rejoicing. On reaching home, 
he ntlified Wie^to leave tfie premises, which or- 
der was soon obeyed. "While Brown lived there his 
daughter, about fourteen years of age, and a dog, 
ehased a bear up a tree in the cdrnfield, near the 
house. Obadiah Winters was notified, and on 
coming over, found two or three families gathered 
around the tree to see the sport. Some of them 
begged of him not to shoot the bear in the head, 


as they had heard that a bear's skull would turn 
a bullet, and then the animal would come down 
and kill them all. But Winters aimed at the 
•head, and the bear fell harmless at the roots of 
the tree. About the time Brown settled there, 
William and Jeremiah Brockus commenced a 
clearing where Obadiali Winters now lives ; but 
in a few months sold to James Morrison, who 
soon after sold to Mr. Winters. 

On the 15th of November, 1832, Mr, Abraham 
Lotz and family joined the settlement made the 
year previous in Madison Township. There he 
has remained for thirty-two years, aiding in vari- 
ous ways the development of the county. On 
that farm he has raised a large family, most of 
whom have identified themselves with the inter- 
ests of the county, and some hold honorable po- 
sitions as officers. J. C. Lotz, Esq., was appoint- 
ed Clerk in the Interior Department at Washing- 
ton in 1861, which office he is now tilling with 
credit. Abraham Lotz was a member of the first 
Board of County Commissioners, and for jAany 
years Justice of the Peace in his Tovn'nship. In 
the summer of 1833 he opened a Sabbath School 
in his own house, which was very successful. The 
place of meeting was accommodated to the conve- 
nience of the neighborhood, and the school met at 
different houses from time to time. That Sabbath 
School, the immediate successor of the Indian 


dance, was the first ever held in Jay County ! 
Mr. Lotz deserves much praise for having been 
the iirst to plant, when everything was rough and 
wild, and the moral soil unbroken, that most 
fruitful nursery of the Church. It was a small 
beginning ; but now a score or more of schools, 
scattered over the county, with their many teach- 
ers and hundreds of puj)ils, their libraries, cele- 
brations, picnics, banners and speeches, are the 
ripened fruit of that first moral blossom in the 

Within the next year or two, John McLaugh- 
lin, Edward B. Wotten, "William Money, William 
Isenhart, Benjamin Goldsmith and others settled 
in the Township. It was a very common thing 
then for the Indians to hunt through there. They 
were very, peaceable, and would often dine with 
their white neighbors. At one time, a very 
large, muscular Indian came to help Mr. Lotz roll 
logs ; but he was so exceedingly awkward as to 
be of no use whatever. A log is still lying on the 
bank of the creek there in which the Indians had 
cut notches to assist them in walking up the bank. 
Jesse Gray also hunted and camped through 
those woods at that time. 

In August, 1832, John R. Mays, George Bickel 
and Henry Glassford came to Mrs. Hawkins', and 
selected land in the vicinity. Mr. Mays chose the 
farm he now lives upon, because of the beautiful 


spring in the bank, around which are a clump of 
trees, and near it a log spring-house, built twenty- 
seven years ago. In September these men raised 
their cabins, assisted by Eenj. Goldsmith, and 
Mays' two sons. Bickel moved out the same fall, 
and Mays, fearing some one would take possession 
of his cabin and enter the land, staid through the 
■winter. On the 4:th of March of the following 
spring he and Goldsmith moved to their new 
homes — the latter settling where the town of Lan- 
caster now stands ; the former having no money, 
three old horses, a worn-out wagon, a wife and 
ten children. When Mr. Goodrich, of Winches- 
ter, sold the clearing of the Portland State road, 
Mays took five miles, and cut it out eighteen 
inches and under, for fifty-one dollars and twelve 
cents. He and his boys did the work, one hunt- 
ing while the others chopped. With that money 
he entered his first land. 

Mr. John James, of Randolph County, was one 
of the Commissioners to lay out the State road 
from Richmond to Fort Wayne, and Jer. Smith 
was his Surveyor. In September, 1832, while 
making the survey, they camped on the north side 
of the Little Salimonie, where the road now 
crosses it, probably attracted by the beautiful 
grove, which is now owned by Mr. Jonas Yotaw. 
Here they were visited by Philip Brown, of whom 
they obtained "roasting ears" and squashes. They 


called him " Governor of the State of Salimonie," 
which cognomen he wore while he lived. They 
continued the survey across the Wabash. Previ- 
ous to this they had surveyed the road on another 
route, which passed two miles west of Portland. 
When they reached the Loblolly, Mr. James de- 
clared it would sv/amp a black snake, went hack 
and surveyed the road now passing through Port- 

Daniel Farber and family were the first to move 
into the county, in 1834. Of course they 
staid the first night with Nancy Hawkins, whose 
house was the first resting place for most of the 
settlers. They lived with Philip Brown until 
Farber built himself a cabin, just opposite the 
present beautiful residence of Dr. Joseph Watson, 
at Collge Corner. They moved into it before 
there were either doors, windows, floor or chinking. 
Mr. Farber wanted to put in a floor, but his wife, 
Nancy, said she would live on the ground until he 
could plant some corn, and so the cabin remained 
floorless until September. The cabin is justly 
celebrated as the one in which the first election in 
the county was held, and in which the first Post- 
oflfice was established. Enoch Bowden came that 
year, occupied the house the absconded Wier had 
built, and afterward moved into Bearcreek Town- 
ship. Henry H. Cuppy also came and built the 
house known as the "Conner house," on the south 


side of the Salimonie, at Portland, now owned by- 
Col. J. P. C. Shanks. 

During this year new settlements were com- 
menced at three different points in the county. The 
first of these was by John Pingry, who set- 
tled where he still lives, near West Liberty, 
April 10th, having been at Mr, Cuppy's for three 
weeks, previously. His was the first wagon ever 
driven on the State road, leading north of Port- 
land. They had a camp already prepared, and 
retired quite late that night. The next morning, 
when Mr. Pingry awoke, his wife, Elizabeth, and 
two of the boys were clearing a garden patch. 
Similar energy has characterized Mrs. Pingry's 
life. John Pingry says that spot looked like a 
paradise then. The grass and leaves were ap- 
pearing in their bright green, many flowers were ■ 
out, and he could stand in one place and count 
160 walnut trees, that would average three feet 
feet in diameter. He thought then it was the 
best land he ever saw, and thinks so still. He 
cleared ground and put in ten acres of corn, but 
the birds, squirrels and raccoons destroyed most 
of it. During that summer he killed twenty-six 
deer, two bears, and skinned sixty raccoons on the 
corn-field, which wei'e only about two-thirds of 
the number he killed, and declares that he " killed 
squirrels enough to have fenced it," From the 
raccoon skins he got a hat made, costing $6, which 


lasted twelve years. Like all the early settlers, 
they enjoyed a continual abundance of honey, 
taken from bee-trees. Thqy had two barrels at 
one time. The woods then were covered with 
pea vines and wild rye, and grazing was line. 
Mr. Pingry avers, and it is corroborated by the 
testimony of many others, that the seasons were 
very different then from what they are now. 
There was more rain and high water, and the 
woods furnished much better grazing for stock. 

About the first of May, the same year, Samuel 
Grissell and Moses Hamilton, from Columbiana 
County, were in Winchester, hunting land, but 
had not found any that 'pleased them. B. W. 
Hawkins saw them, and, by much hard persua- 
sion, got them to come up into this region. They 
did so, and stopped with Thomas Shaylor, who 
lived in a cabin without floor or chinking. The 
ground had been swept so nii*ch that there was 
quite a hole in the middle of the house. It rained 
hard during the first night of their stay, the 
ground on which they were sleeping became very 
wet, and the hole fall of water. They made se- 
lections of land, Mr. Grissell's being that upon 
which he still lives. They went home by way of 
Fort Wayne, where they bought a canoe and 
paddled down the Maumee. Mr. Hamilton soon 
moved out, and he became the first permanent 
settler of Penn Township. Mr. Grissell followed 


in October followino^, accompanied bj his iamily 
of wife and seven children, and Jonathan, Zacha- 
riah and Joseph Iliatt. Ilis log house was twenty 
by twenty-live feet, fire-place eleven feet wide. 
They often drew backlogs into the house with a 
horse who had to go across the room and put his 
head out the window. That horse is still living, 
is thirty-three years old, and the oldest inhabitant 
of his kind in Jay County. 

In November, Mr. John McCoy moved into the 
cabin Shaylor had occupied. He says four ten 
cent pieces were all the money he had in the 
world. He had to depend npon his gun for a liv- 
ing. He was as contented as the young man from 
Jay, who, while traveling out from Dayton 
with four cents in his pocket, wrote to his friends 
that he felt just as well as if he had had " double 
that amount." In three years McCoy killed three 
hundred deer. 

The great distance to provisions, and there being 
no roads cut out, led the early settlers to make 
meal by pounding corn in a " hominy block." 
Mr. McCoy and all his neighbors had to go to 
Newport and Richmond to find a mill and store. 
In a year or tv70 the settlers were greatly delight- 
ed that Job Carr was going to build a horse-mill, 
but they were as much disappointed when the 
first grist ruined the mill, and their hominy blocks 
had to be used asain. 


The other settlement made during this year was 
in Jefferson Township. Mr. Aaron Dillie was 
the tirst settler there. But little is known of him 
now except that he was an earnest, consistent 
Christian. Mr. Joseph Flesher, who died a few 
years since, came next, and, very soon after, in 
the autumn of 1834, Joshua Hudson settled on 
the land now known as " Baker Johnson's farm," 
having lived for a year previous on Day's Creek, 
Bandolph County. While living at the latter 
place, after they had retired for the night, there 
came quite a shower of rain. When Mr. Hudson 
rose in the morning he found the puncheon floor 
floatinoj and the house surrounded with water for 
fifty yards ! He carried his family to a place of 
safety and, by the next night, the water subsided. 

In 1S37 Mr. Hudson died, and the family was 
scattered. Wm. C. Hudson, Esq., his sou, and 
the surviving members of Mr. Flesher's family, are 
the oldest living inhabitants of that township. 

This year (1834) is known among the settlers 
then living in the county as the " hard year" and 
the " squirrel year." It was a time of great hard- 
ships, caused by the coming of squirrels in vast 
numbers, who destroyed the crops. It was called 
the " squirrel march or stampede," as those ani- 
mals seemed to be emigrating, by hundreds and 
thousands, for some cause yet unexplained. The 
inhabitants would stand around their fields and 


shoot them all day, but could i^either frighten 
them nor percoivably lessen their numbers. The 
Hawkins family had fifteen acres of splendid 
corn, which, in order to save, they gathered as 
soon as it began to harden, and had but fifteen 
bushels, which they picked from the centre of the 
field. For the same cause the crops failed in 
Darke County, Ohio, and the settlers had to go 
to Eaton to buy meal. There was not a wagon 
then in the Hawkins settlement, and they went 
by turns on horseback, occupying five days in 
making a trip. 

The first marriage in Jay County took place in 
this year. Mr. Joseph Williamson married Miss 
Maky Ellen Hartup, May 21st, 1834. The 
wedding was at Henry H. Cuppy's, and the Jus- 
tice was Oliver Walker, of Randolph County. 
The license was issued at Winchester. Mr. Wil- 
liamson now lives in Wells County. The next 
marriage was that of Mr. James Simmons to Miss 
Christena Avaline Hawkins, June 24:th, 1834, 
by Joel Ward, Esq. 

Mr. David Baldwin selected land near John 
Pingry in the fall of 1834, and in April of the 
next year he and William Baldwin settled there. 
They thought it a very wild place, for they would 
sometimes stand in their cabin door and shoot the 
deer that were browsing on the trees which had 
been cut down to keep them from falling on the 


house. David Baldwin opened a blacksmith and 
gunsmith shop that year (1835), which were the 
hrst shops of the kind in the county. The Indi- 
ans were frequent travelers through there then. 
David Baldwin was a true pioneer — an active and 
very useful man. As a Christian, he was a 
Methodist local preacher ; as a mechanic, he was 
a blacksmith and cabinet-maker, and as a pioneer, 
a farmer, good bee-tree and deer hunter. He 
afterward emigrated to Kansas, where he served 
under the famous John Brown. William Bald- 
win still lives upon the same place. 

During 1835 many persons visited the county 
and selected land. Every settler's cabin was 
crowded with travelers. Early in the spring, 
"William and Uriah Chapman came out and 
camped near by the spring, where James White- 
man now lives, in Bear Creek Township. Two 
corners of a blanket fastened to the ground, the 
other two tied up with lind bark, in a slanting 
direction, served for their camp, in front of which 
they kindled a fire. On the 22d of April, Wil- 
liam, with his family and father-in-law, George 
Lipps, arrived on the spot where he lived until his 
death, February 15th, 1862. He first built a shed, 
under which they lived, cooking by a log-heap, 
for two months, until compelled to build a cabin 
for protection against the mosketoes. Like many 
others, Uriah Chapman had to travel by night in 


great haste to Fort "Wayne to save their land 
from speculators. For several seasons Mr. Chap- 
man did little besides provide for travelers. About 
half of his time was occupied in hunting to get 
meat, and the other half going south for provi- 

Mr. Joel Wilson was the first settler in Rich- 
land Township, arriving tliere in the fall of 1S35. 
James Green had, however, visited the county 
previously, and built a cabin in what he then sup- 
posed was Delaware County, but which the survey 
afterward proved to be in Jay ; but Mr. Wilson 
was the first to move with his family into the 
township. Most of the earliest pioneers of Rich- 
land Township have either moved away or gone 
to their final rest ; but Mr. Wilson still remains, 
a respectable and influential citizen of the town- 
ship. Mr. Green's cabin and an orchard he set 
out were situated on Isaac Ketterman's farm, and 
were the first improvements of the kind made in 
that township. The same fall John Rooth, Ren- 
jamin Manor and William Richardson opened a 
settlement in the southwest corner of the county. 

About this time three new settlers came into 
the Camden neighborhood. They were Joshua 
Rond, William Swallow and Elihu Hamilton. 
William Cofiin then lived in the same house with 
Shaylor. Mr. Rond was raised in North Caro- 
lina — a Friend — was a pioneer in Wayne County, 


then moved to "Winchester, and owned a farm on 
which part of that town is now situated. He built 
the log house in which he still lives, in the winter 
of 1835-'6. There were not men enough in that 
region to raise it, and help had to be brought from 
"Winchester. He is still living, though in his 
eighty-fourth year. 

In November Peter Daily, accompanied by 
"William Carpenter, settled near Joshua Hud- 
son, in Jefferson Township. For four years his 
business was hunting, in which he was very suc- 
cessful. Kaccoon skins were worth $1 a piece 
then, and he caught ten in one evening and one 
hundred and sixty-eight during the season. For 
an otter skin he got $8,50. He and Alexander 
Stein went hunting one day — shot but six times, 
and killed seven deer. He had hunted so much 
with a favorite horse that, though turned loose, it 
would stay near his camp until he was ready to 
go home. One time he went home without taking 
the horse, and on going back, six weeks after- 
ward, he found the faithful animal still making 
the camp his headquarters. 

In March, 1885, Colonel Christopher Hanna, 
with a large family, of which H. P. Hanna was 
the eldest, settled in Noble Township, where 
George Bergman, senior, now lives. They shared 
the usual hardships of the pioneers. During a 
trip to Greenville for provisions his family suffer- 


ed severely for want of food. Great was their 
joy when the returning wagon was heard winding 
through the woods. Tlie wet season and early 
frost ruined his corn, and while H. P. Hanna 
was plowing, a falling limb killed the horse 

In 1836 he moved to Portland, and became 
prominently connected with the organization of 
the county ; was the first Sheriff of the county by 
appointment of the Governor, and first County 
Clerk, by election. In 1850 he moved from the 
county, and died, highly respected, in Tama 
County, Iowa, March 23d, 1859. 

This year also witnessed the coming of Daniel 
"W. McNeal, who was closely identified with the 
early settlement of Jay County. He came in No- 
vember, 1835. At the organization of the county 
he was appointed County Surveyor, which office 
he filled for many years. In this capacity he laid 
off the county seat, and suggested to the County 
Commissioners the name for it, which was adopt- 
ed. He afterward held the offices of Justice of 
the Peace, School Examiner, Land Appraiser and 
Surveyor of Swamp Lands. He also taught 
school in the county several years. Althougli he 
had some eccentricities, he was possessed of ex- 
tensive and varied knowledge ; was especially 
well versed in mathematics and many of the phy- 
sical sciences. He gloried in having been an ear- 


ly, consistent anti-slavery man. He lived an 
honest and useful lite, and died at Portland in 
April, 1864, aged 62 years. 



The year 1833 added but few to the scanty- 
number of pioneers. One was Mr. Obadiali Win- 
ters, from Miami County, who reached the Haw- 
kins cabin with his family on the 1st of October, 
having visited the country the previous summer. 
He bought out James Morrison, and still lives 
on the same old farm. It was very common at 
that time for hunters from the older settlements 
to hunt in this county. Their camps were every 
where to be found. But the crack of no one's 
rifle was heard so frequently, or was so fatal to 
the game, as that of Jesse Gray. His favorite 
camping place was near the spring on the Sali- 
inonie, now owned by Samuel Reed. Once when 
Mr. Winters was hunting, he heard what he M^as 
sure was a turkey calling her mate. Soon he saw 


her, and taking the most deliberate aim, was just 
touching the trigger when Jesse Gray sprang out 
into open view. It so alarmed Winters that he 
could scarcely hold his gun the rest of the da}'-, 
but not a nerve trembled of the veteran hunter, 
who so narrowly escaped. 

When Mr. Winters' son John was about two 
and a half years old, he was one day at his grand- 
father's, Philip Ensminger's. In the morning the 
old man went hunting, and without his knowledge 
the little fellow followed and got lost. The waters 
were very high, and it rained hard during that 
night. Great excitement prevailed throughout 
the community, and a large number of persons 
went to hunt him, which they did the whole night 
in vain. A cat which was wont to play with the 
child followed them, and repeatedl}^ during the 
night came to them, mewed, and then went away 
again. They paid no attention to this until morn- 
ing, when J. C. Hawkins and Thomas^'Mays fol- 
lowed the cat, and she led them direct to the lost 
boy. He was insensible, very cold, and nearly 
dead. When he revived so as to be able to talk 
he saw the cat and said, " Tom, you and me has 
been lost." He also said that the cat came to him 
several times through the night, and that he saw 
a big dog, which was doubtless a wolf. 

Mr. Winters made the coffins in those days. 
There being no lumber for the purpose, puncheons 


were split out of logs, hewed and planed until 
the J looked as well as sawed lumber. In such a 
coffin a child of Philip Brown was buried on the 
north bank of the Little Salimonie, near the road. 
That was the first death in Wayne Township, 
In this year also the Highlander family came 
to the county, consisting of William Highlander, 
senior, then about eighty years old, and wife, and 
William, Tandy, James, and several others. They 
built a log house near Mr. Winters, and after 
having cleared several acres, a speculator entered 
the land, and they were again without a home. 
William and James now live in Portland. 

In the autumn of 1833 Edward Buforfl and 
family settled near where Samuel K. Williams 
now lives, and was the first settler in Jackson 
Township, He had been a valuable scout in the 
war of 1812, and now he and his sons were famous 
hunters. They had as many as one hundred and 
fifty traps set at one time. The " pole trap," which 
was so often used by them and other hunters, 
should be described. A long pole was cut, then 
two stakes driven into the ground, one on each 
side of it, near one end. These were withed 
together at the top ; then another pole was placed 
on the first one, the end between the stakes raised 
up, and triggers set under it. To these was 
attached a string, which ran back between the 
poles. Upon the whole was placed a lieavy 


weight. Animals attempting to pass between the 
poles would touch the string, spring the triggers, 
and be caught in the "dead fall." JB. W. Haw- 
kins says Buford was the only man he ever knew 
who could catch a tbx in a trap of this kind. In 
a few years Mr. Buford moved into Bear Creek 
Township, where he died in 184:1. 




The wild animals abounding in the forests of 
Jay, when civilization commenced its war upon 
them, were the bear, deer, wolf, wild cat, wild 
hog, otter, gray fox, raccoon, woodchuck or ground 
hog, porcupine, mink, muskrat, skunk, opossum, 
rabbit, weasel and squirrel. Early settlers claim 
to have killed catamounts. Some of these animals 
being now rarely seen, should be described. The 
wolf has the general appearance of a large dog. 
He hunts in the night, lives chiefly upon deer and 
rabbits, but kills sheep, hogs, and almost any other 
animal when he can. Wolves do not go in large • 
gangs except in the winter ; then twelve or fifteen 
are sometimes seen in one pack. At other seasons 
they go in pairs, except when attended by their 

THE WOLF. 105 

young. The she wolf generally makes her nest 
in a hollow log, each succeeding year occupying 
the same place until disturbed, after which she 
seeks a new spot near by. The male wolf sleeps 
a hundred yards or so distant from her nest, on 
rising ground. At evening, when she has young, 
she walks a few feet from the nest and howls. He 
answers with a terrible roar, goes to the nest, then 
away into the woods, and during the night brings 
home whatever game he chances to catch. At 
sunrise he gives apparently a warning howl and 
retires, while the king of day tills the forest with 
golden light. The wolf is a shy animal, and never 
attacks a man unless when very hungry or in de- 
fense. B. "W". Hawkins tells the following story : 
Long before white men inhabited Jay County 
some Indians were trapping on the head waters 
of the Salimonie, in Madison Township. One 
Indian went several miles from the camp, alone, 
to set some traps. On the way be killed a deer, 
which he tied across his shoulders. Returning 
just after dark, he heard wolves near him. They 
first acted as if playing around him, then came 
nearer and encircled him, snapping their teeth 
and showing a determination to attack. He shot, 
and instantly they were upon him from every 
side. He seized his tomahawk and struck at 
them in all directions, but one caught him and 
^ore the cords from his leg. At that moment he 


cut loose the deer, which they seized, and ran 
away. The Indian crawled to a fallen tree, the 
roots of which had turned up. Upon these he 
climbed and remained until morning, when the 
Indians came in search of him. When Mr. Haw- 
kins saw him he was a cripple, and had to hunt 
on horseback. 

Wild hogs are simply tame ones that have run 
in the woods until they have become wild, or 
their progeny. They sometimes live to the age 
of twelve years or more, become very large, and 
have a large tusk on each side of the snout. They 
are the wildest animals that ever traveled the 
woods. They do not root around irregularly like 
tame hogs, but always in a straight course, as 
if surveying, occasionally raising their heads and 
walking several rods. They never attaclc a man 
unless cornered. The early settlers killed them 
rapidly, and now none remain. 

Wild cats were very numerous in Jay. They 
are of a brindle color, have the shape of the house 
cat, but are four or five times larger. They are a 
ferocious animal ; will fight desperately when at- 
tacked, and can catch and kill a nest of pigs in 
spite of the efforts of the mother. 

Two miles below Bortland there is what the 
hunters call the " big eddy" in the Salimonie. It 
is a place one mile long where the waters are un- 
obstructed and calm. It is the best place for 

riKE-HUNTING. 107 

" fire-hunting " on this stream. Before the deer 
had fled from the destructive axe and fatal rifle of 
the white man, it was the favorite spot with the 
Indians for this grand sport. For this reason it 
is supposed they made the "two-mile reserva- 
tion," which embraced the eddy. Indians fire- 
hunt in this wise : They girdle a large pig-nut 
hickory near the ground and again twelve or fif- 
teen feet above ; then split the bark open on one 
side of the tree, which enables them to peel the 
tree all the way around the body, preserving the 
bark in one piece. The rough, outside bark is 
taken off the ends, which are then tied closely. A 
stick is put crosswise inside the bark, near each 
end, and the result is, a bark canoe — the lightest 
boat that floats. At night a very large, lighted 
wax candle is set at one end, behind which is 
placed a wide board, which throws the light for- 
ward and conceals the hunters in the rear of 
the canoe. Silent as the night, and slowly the 
"frail bark" moves down the stream. The dis- 
tant deer, quietly drinking at the water's edge, 
sees the glaring light approaching. Beyond is 
utter darkness. As if charmed, he gazes intently 
at the strange phenomenon. Gradually nearer 
draws the canoe. Kot a ripple, nor a breath, 
breaks the stillness, until the fatal ball strikes its 
innocent victim, and the shores reverberate with 
the report. 



As late as 1833'the Indians visited this eddy to 
enjoy, for the hist time, their favorite hunt. Once, 
having just made such preparations, Jesse Grray, 
senior, came into the vicinity. They immediate - 



Ij left, and he enjoyed their camp and canoe. At 
another time, when he was fire-hunting, he came 
so near the deer that, when shot, it jumped across 
the canoe the first bound.* 

In 1S34, the families scattered over the south 
part of the county began to think their settlement 
of sufficient importance to be under the restraint 
of law. Prior to this they had enjoyed unlimited 
freedom. When Mr. Goodrich, Collector of Ran- 
dolph County, came to collect taxes, every man 
positively refused to pay. The collector laughed, 
said that any one who dared come out there to 
open a forest, ought not to pay tax, and returned.. 

The Commissioners of Randolph County were 
petitioned to organize Salimonie Township and 
appoint an election. 

On the 5th of January, 1835, the Board ordered 
that all the attached part of that county should 
be organized into Salimonie Township. They 
also appointed the first election at Daniel Farber's, 
on the last Saturday in January, 1835, Obadiah 
"Winters, Inspector. The officer to be elected was - 
a Justice; the candidates were H. H. Cuppyand- 
Benjamin Goldsmith. Whiskey was free, a bar- 
rel having been obtained for the occasion, and 
the contest grew very exciting. The only politi - 

* Many interesting stories might be related of Jesse Gray, 
senior ; but the publication of his life is contemplated, in 
which they will more appropriately appear. ..... 

6 " ■ ^'-■ 



cal question involved was the location of the can- 
didates, and Cuppy triumphed. This was thelirst 
election held in the County. 

When a boy is possessed of a hatchet or a jack- 
knife, the temptation to use them becomes irresist- 
able. So it seemed to be with these few social 
neighbors. By the election of a Justice of the 
Peace, they obtained the facilities for going to 
law, and litigation commenced. Before this, all 
difficulties had been adjusted by third parties, 
without officers or fees, which generally resulted 
in the belligerent parties " drinking friendship." 
Not so when they could boast a " Squire." A 
law-suit was waiting for Squire Cuppy when he re- 
turned from "Winchester, where he had to go to 
get his commission. Mr. "William Bunch and 
Philip Brown quarreled about a "cross" dog be- 
longing to the latter, who had made some serious 
threats, and the former commenced a suit to com- 
pel Brown to "keep the peace." The case was 
docketed " John Doe versus Richard Hoe, etc.," 
a writ i88ued,a constable deputized. Brown arrested 
and the witnesses summoned to meet at Cuppy's 
house. The defendant admitted the charge, and was 
"bound over " to appear at the higher court. The 
most difficult part of the trial, for the Justice, now 
came up viz: how to draw a "recognizance." 
After much profound deliberation and careful re- 
search, a form was found in the statutes, which, 


though intended for general cases, was given under 
the vagrant act. Being a poor scribe himself, the 
Justice procured the services of Henry Welch, 
who, when he came to that part of the form given 
thus, " [John Doe and Richard Roe, &c.,] " sug- 
gested that the words in brackets did not suit the 
present case, and inquired what should be done? 
This was a puzzling question for the " Court," 
but, having duly deliberated, Ciippy announced 
with an oath that he wanted it distinctly under- 
stood by the people that he was going according 
to law^ and the form must be copied as given in 
the Statute. So it was copied, brackets and all, 
after which the court instructed the securities to 
" attend the next term of Court in Winchester, and 
deliver Brown up, in open Court, to stand his trial 
for vagrancy-'*'' Accordingly, when Circuit Court 
opened in Winchester, the securities appeared 
with Brown, when the Judge, upon an examina- 
tion of the papers, dismissed the case in such 
terms, as convinced Cuppy of his unfitness for 
Justice of the Peace, and he resigned — a sensible 
act, which rarely occurs in these latter days. So 
ended the first lawsuit. 

The records of the Randolph Board of Commis- 
sioners, dated May 5th, 1835, state that all the 
territory included in Jay County was constituted 
one road district, and William Bunch appointed 
supervisor. On the same day, Madison Town- 



ship was organized, an election appointed at Ben- 
jamin Goldsmith's, on the third Saturday in June, 
Abraham Lotz, Inspector. Tliat was the second 
election. Another election was ordered to be 
held the second Saturday in October, 1835. At 
one of these elections James Graves was elected 
Justice, went to Winchester for his commission, 
and, on his way home, married William Cum- 
mings and Matilda Denney. 

The year 1835 witnessed the opening of the 
first schools in Jay County. The "red man of the 
forest" was followed by daring old hunters like 
Jesse Gray, who foundthese woods against which 
the axe had never been raised, delightful fields 
for the pursuit of game. Their camp-fires suc- 
ceeded the wigwam, while soon the rude cabin 
came. Now, when the wild man was only an oc- 
casional visitor, and many hunters were tramping 
the forest, schools were opened, and the few 
children of the settlement taught to read and spell. 
In the summer of this year, two schools were 
taught. One in a cabin built by a Mr, Wringer, 
situated where Liber College now stands, and 
the other in a similar house, situated on what was 
afterward the farm of James Rhine, in Madison 
Township. The former was taught by Miss Sarah 
Tharp, later the wife of Mr. Thomas Ward, of 
Winchester; the latter by Mr. Edward Bell 
Wotten, who had recently settled there. These 


pioneer teachers !iave long since gone to their 
final reward. The exact date cannot be given 
when either of the schools commenced, and it is 
unimportant — both these persons are equally de- 
serving the profound respect which the people of 
Jay will not cease to cherish for the memories of 
their first teachers. Soon log school houses dotted 
the county. Of the teachers ofiiciating in them, 
some were wise and some were " otherwise." 
Now the neatly painted frame school house is 
taking the place of the dear old cabin with its 
mud-and-stick chimney, its clapboard and weight- 
pole roof, its knotty, unpeeled, sapling benches, 
wide fire-place and bush of wild roses clambering 
upon the gable ends. An embryo college now 
stands upon the very spot made sacred by such 
a cabin. 

The first mail carried through this county was 
in 1829, by Mr. Ellis Kizer, from Winchester, by 
way of the Godfrey Trace, to Fort Wayne. The 
mail was not opened then in the county, but this 
pioneer herald picked his way on horseback along 
a barely discernible path, through three score and 
ten miles of wilderness. At the Godfrey village 
he could count several times as many Indian huts 
as there were white families along the entire route. 
He carried it until 1833, when Samuel Hawkins 
got the contract, and the route was changed so as* 
to pass through the Hawkins settlement. On the 


11th of June, 1835, the first Post Office was estab- 
lished in Jay (then called Randolph) County, at 
the house of Daniel Farber, who was Postmaster. 
The office was then called Saliraonie. It was a 
great convenience — persons receiving their mail 
therefrom all parts of this, and some from Adams 
County. The postage on letters was then from 
ten to twenty-five cents. Mrs. IS^ancy Farber per- 
formed most of the few duties connected with the 
office. Mr. John Conner carried the first mail by 
this office, and with the exception of four years, 
continued carrying it until 1862, since which time 
Mr. Jacob Conkel has been the carrier. In May, 
1837, the office was removed to H. H. Cuppy's, 
who became the Postmaster, and the name was 
changed to Jay Court House. 

The following shows by townships all the land 
entered in Jay County prior to 1836, in order of 
date, and name of the person making the entry, 
as taken from the record in the County Auditor's 


James Green July 21, 1834 80 acres. 

Joel Wilson Sept. 23, 1834. ... 80 

Benjamin Manor Sept. 23, 1834 80 

Baldwin Smith Nov. 7, 1835 80 

EU H. Chalk Nov. 7,1885.... 80 

James Green Dec. 21, 1835 40 



.. 80 


.. 80 




.. 80 





No entries were made ia this township until May 10th, 
1836, when Daniel Tucker entered 240 acres. 


Moses Hamilton June 10, 1834. ... 80 acres. 

Samuel Grissell June 10, 1834 ...160 " 

" July 7,1835....— " 

Jonathan Hiatt July 7, 1835 — " 

Samuel Crawford July 7, 1885 — " 


George Meek June 10, 1834.. 

Joseph Flesher July 7, 1835. 

James Haworth Nov. 11, 1835. 

John Steed Dec. 13, 1835. 

Daniel Ertte Dec. 12, 1835. 


No entries until April 19th, 1833, when William M. Ruth 

entered 40 acres. 


Samuel W. Fonts June 28, 1S34 — acrea. 

Michael Zimmerman Dec. 16, 1835. 

JohnPingry Dec. 19, 1835... 

James Marquis Dec. 26, 1835. 


Thomas J. Shaylor April 20, 1833. 

George Hardy Sept. 28, 1833..., 

John R. May.<i Nov. 9, 1833. 

Samuel Hawkins Nov. 16, 1833. , 

Isaac Aker Dec. 12, 1833. 

William Clark Sept. 14, 1835., 

Charles Wilkerson Sept. 14, 1835..., 

George Bickel Dec. 21, 1835. 

Nancy Hawkins Dec. 23, 1835. 

Curtis Hardy Dec. 29, 1835. , 

Henry Welch Dec. —.1835., 







40 acres. 




















James Morrison Feb. 9, 1833. . 

Philip Brown Mar. 28, 1833. . 

Leander Morrison April 13, 1833. . 

Hawkins C. Fonts Sept. 28, 1833. . 

Daniel Farber Sept. 30, 1834 . 

Henrj' H. Cuppy July 3, 1835. . 

Tandy Highlander Dec. 23, 1835. . 


Morton Jones Jnne 10, 1834. . 

Isaac Huey June 10, 1834. . 

William Siberry Aug. 23, 1834. . 

John McKissick Dec. 8, 1834. 


Conaway Stone Feb. 22, 1C33. 

Benjamin Goldsmith Aug. 24, 1833. 

Ed. Bell Wotten Jan. 16, 1834. 

William Cummings. Ja.n. 16, 1834. 

James Martindale June 12, 1834. 

John Eblin June 24, 1834. . 

William Money June 24, 1834. 

Richard Clark Sept. 14, 1835. 

William Cummings Sept. 21, 1835. 

William Isenhart Oct. 23, 1835. 

Charles Sackman Dec. 21, 1835. 

Benjamin Goldsmith Dec. 21, 1835. . 


James Stone. . . .Nov. 9, 1832, and Oct. 5, 1833. . 

Thomas Scott Nov. 10, 1832. 

William E. Burns Mar. 27, 1835. , 

Conaway Stone May S.0, 1835. , 

Charles Wilkerson. Sept. 14, 1835. 

40 acres. 











. 40 


. 40 


. 77 


. 80 


. 80 


. 80 acres. 

.160 " 

. 40 " 

. 80 " 

, 40 " 

, 40 " 

. 80 " 

, 40 " 

.40 . " 

. 40 " 

.173 acres. 
. 40 '• 
.160 " 
.106 " 
. 80 " 



Orman Perring July 24, 1833 66 acres. 

F. Bowers and E. Putnam Oct. 4, 1883 3 6-10 

William Gibson Aug. 19, 1835 40 acres. 

John B. Gillespie. . . .Oct. 27, and Dec. 19, 1835. ... 82 " 
Hamilton Gibson Ndv. 2, 1835. ... 40 " 

In April, 1836, Mr. Joseph "Wilson, afterward 
County Auditor, selected land near Samuel Gris- 
sell, who accompanied him to Fort Wayne, to 
make the entry. They struck the Wabash at 
Adam Miller's, went down stream to Henry Mil- 
ler's, where Bluffton now stands, arriving after 
dark. Here they met John Conner, carrying the 
mall — an occurrence familiar to all northward 
travelers for twenty-five years afterward. The 
next morning, crossing the river in a canoe, and 
swimming their horses, they proceeded on their 
journey. Every where the streams were over- 
flowing, and several times the water ran over 
their horses' backs. At the St. Mary's river thev 
left the horses, crossed in a canoe, and walked to 
the land office. Early in the July following Mr. 
Wilson brought his family fi;om Champaign 
County, Ohio. From Joab Ward's they came ma 
John Brooks', which place they endeavored to 
reach in one day. Failing in this they were com- 
pelled to camp out. They were greatly troubled 
by the myriads of blood-thirsty mosquitoes that 
swarmed around them. Having located wife and 


children upon the load, protected by the "wagon 
cover, he spent most of the night lying upon a 
log not far distant, with three or four smoke-tires 
around him, and bush in hand to fight off the 
biting, buzzing torments. The next evening they 
reached Muses Hamilton's, having been two days 
coming sixteen miles. Sometimes the road was 
too crooked for their long team, and had to be cut 
out. In about a week they moved into their own 
house, and began clearing away the woods around 
it, " to make it look a little like home," — the first 
work of every pioneer family. For nearly two 
months during the following winter all the bread 
for the family of eight was made by pounding 
corn in a hominy mortar, sifting out the finest for 
bread, the next for " mush," while the coarsest 
was boiled for hominy — a convenient variety, 
which no mill of later invention can produce from 
one hopper. 




The land lying south of the boundary road, in 
Jay County, was ceded to the United States by 
the Indians in a Treaty made at Greenville, Ohio, 
August 3, 1795. The line began at the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga River, and, after various windings, 
reached Fort Recovery, and proceeded "south-, 
westerly in a direct line to the Ohio River, so as 
to intercept it opposite the mouth of the Kentucky 
or^Cuttawa River." 

This treaty was signed, on the part of the 
United States, by Major General Anthony Wayne, 
and by the Indians, by the chiefs of the following 
tribes : Wyandots, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippe- 
was, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, 
Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias. 

The land lying north of this boundary line 
was ceded to the United States by the Indians in 


a Treaty made at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 6, 
1818. It was between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis 
Cass and Benjamin Parke, Commissioners of the 
United States, and the Chiefs of the Miami na- 
tion of Indians, viz : Peshawa or Richard ville, 
Osas, Ketanga or Charley, and others. In this 
Treaty many reservations were made by the In- 
dians, two of which were in Jay, as follows : 
"One reservation of two miles square on the 
Salimonie River, at the mouth of Atchepongqwa- 
we Creek," (now called Butternut, from the but- 
ternut trees growing along its banks). The other 
reserves "to Francois Godfrey six sections of 
land on the Salimonie River, at a place called 
Lapetite Prairie." The two mile reservation on 
Butternut Creek was ceded to the United States 
by the Miami tribe of Indians, in a Treaty made 

. Octobtr 23, 1834, at the forks of the Wabash, 

' below Huntington. 

Colonel John Yawter, of Jennings County, was 
Chairman of a Committee in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, of the Legislature of 1835-6, that in- 
troduced a bill, which passed and was approved 
February Yth, 1835, entitled "an act laying out 
all the unorganized territory, to which the Indian 
title has been extinguished, in the State, into a 
suitable number of counties, and for other pur- 
poses," by which the counties of Jay, Adams, 
Wells, DeKalb, Steuben, Whitley, Kosciusko, Ful- 


ton, Marshall, Stark, Pulaski, Jasper, Newton and 
Porter were al lai^' out. 

The following is section third of that act : 

That all the territory included within the following boun- 
dary lines shall constitute and form a county, to be 
known by the name of Jay; beginning at the south- 
east corner of Adams County, thence west to the eastern 
boundary of Grant County, thence south to the northern 
boundary of Delaware, thence east with the northern boun- 
dary of said county, to the north-east corner of the same, 
thence south to the north-west corner of Randolph County, 
thence east with the northern boundary of said county, to the 
.State line, thence north to the place of beginning. 

This included the territory of Blackford County 
which was organized into an independent county 
in 1837. 

The chief labor of laying out the territory into 
counties devolved upon Colonel Yawter, who was 
better acquainted with the country than any 
other member of the committee, yet, when the 
counties were named, he was not allowed the 
privilege of giving a name to even one of the 
fourteen counties organized by his bill. He 
always regretted this exceedingly, as he was very 
anxious to name one county Armstkong, in honor 
of a brave old soldier of that name who spent his 
best days in the northern part of Indiana, and 
who finally fell a victim to Indian barbarity. 

It cannot be ascertained who gave the name of 
Jay to this county. Some member of the Legis- 


lature gave the name in an amendment to the bill. 
The Randolph County commissioner's record calls 
it by this name as early as May, 1835. 

John Jay, in honor of whom the county was 
named, was the iirst Chief Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court. He was appointed Minis- 
ter to England, in 1791:, when he resigned the 
office of Chief Justice. In 1800, while he was 
Governor of New York,- he was re-appointed 
Chief Justice, but declined the appointment. 

Another act was passed, approved January 30, 
1836, by which the county was organized. 

Section 1. Be it enacted hy the General Assem- 
Uy^ c&c. : That, from and after the first day of March 
next, the county of Jay shall enjoy all the rights 
and jurisdiction which, to separate and independ- 
ent counties, do or may properly belong. 

Secs. 2d and 3d, appointed the commissioners 
to locate the county seat, made it the duty of the 
Sheriff of Randolph County to notify them, and 
that they should be paid from the treasury of Jay 

Sec. 4th, provided that the first circuit and 
other courts should be held at the house of Henry 
H. Cuppy. 

Sec. 5, made it the duty of the county agent to" 
reserve ten per cent, of the money received from 
the sale of donated lots for the use of the County 

Sec. 6th, set forth the duties of the Board of 
County Commissioners, and the 8th placed the 


county in the 8th Judicial Circuit and 5th Con- 
gressional District. 

The following persons were appointed by the 
Legislature to locate the county seat : Judge Jer. 
Smith, Judge Zachariah Pucket, still living in 
Randolph County, Jacob Thornburg,. of Henry 
County, who has been dead many years, Mr. 
I^athan Coleman, of Allen County, and Mr. 
Philip Moore, of Delaware County, who died 
about that time. "With the exception of Mr. 
Moore, they all met at H. H. Cuppy's the first 
Monday in June, 1836, as required by the^law. 
Camden, they said, though a pretty site, was too 
far from the center, (for they then anticipated that 
Blackford County would be stricken off.) The 
geographical center of the county, one and a quar- 
ter miles north-west of Portland, was too low. 
They then viewed the " Sugar-tree " grove, about 
one and a half miles south-west of Portland, and 
decided that was the most appropriate spot. But 
they were falsely told by a man who desired to 
enter that land himself, that the owner of it lived 
in Union County, Indiana, and would not sell the 
land on any terms. They then took eighty acres 
on the north side of the Salimonie, offered by Dan- 
iel Pied, of Richmond, through the agency of H. 
H. Cuppy, and ten acres adjoining, offered by 
James Hathaway. Pied reserved half the lots 
around the court house square, and one-third of 
all others. 


Jay County is eighteen miles long (north and 
south), twenty-one miles wide across the north 
end, and twenty-two across the south end. The 
face of the country is generally level, although 
somewhat broken along the water courses. The 
surface soil is usually a dark loam, with a subsoil 
of clay, intermixed with limestone gravel. There 
is a section of country lying toward the northwest 
part of the county, embracing about six square 
miles, which is in some of its features unlike oth- 
er portions. In this section, the surface soil is a 
sandy loam, lying upon a gravel subsoil. It is 
interspersed with many hillocks or knobs, which 
Benjamin Ninde called the Lost Mountains. This 
district is chiefly in Penn Township. 

There is not much rock in the county. Enough 
"grayheads" generally are found to supply the de- 
mand for walling cellars and wells. In the vi- 
cinity of Antioch and three miles north of Port- 
land, this variety of rock prevails extensively. For 
two miles above and below New Corydon the 
"Wabash river flows over a stratum of white lime- 
stone, A mile south of the river this quarry of 
stone crops oat in the creeks and runs, but be- 
ing in the beds of the streams, can only be quar- 
ried in dry seasons. A lime-kiln has been in 
operation for several seasons on the south bank of 
the river, by Washington Walter, which turns out 
lime unsurpassed anywhere. Limestone is also 


found on the Salimonie some two miles below 

The country is very well watered by the numer- 
ous streams that take their rise within its limits. 
They have so little fall, however, they afibrd but 
very little water power. Springs abound along 
some of these streams. It was originally very 
heavily timbered with beech, hickory, oak, ash, 
walnut, sugar, maple, elm, linden, sycamore, &c. 
When the tirst settlers came, the woods were des- 
titute of an undergrowth. As the settlements be- 
came ffcneral, and' fires were not allowed to run 
through the timber lands, a dense undergrowth 
sprung up. 

The county abounds in wild fruits, consisting of 
plums, grapes, paw-paws, blackberries, gooseber- 
ries, and, in the neighborhood of the Loblolly, 
were huckleberries and cranberries. 

A belt extends across the north part of Jackson 
Township from west to east, varying in width 
from eighty rods to a mile, called the Loblolly. It 
consists of brushy ponds, wet prairies and small 
lakes. Along its border is some of the richest 
land within the county. It is thought that near- 
ly the entire tract can be reclaimed and made 
very profitable for agricultural purposes. Con- 
siderable portions of it were conveyed by the 
United States to the State of Indiana several 
years since, and were by the State sold, the pro- 


ceeds of which, after paying expenses, were to be 
applied in draining the lands so sold. With this 
fund some draining has been done ; the amount 
of the fund, however, was insufficient to complete 
the work. The county is bounded on the north 
bj the counties of Adams and Wells, on the east 
by Mercer and Darke counties, Ohio, on the . 
south by Randolph County, and on the west by 
Delaware and Blackfurd counties. 

The following table shows the number of acres 
and square miles in each Township. 

Acres. Square miles. 

Eichland 17,434 13 100 27. 

Knox 15,386 71-100 24 , 

Penn 19,174 91-100 30 

JefiFerson 22,753 66- 1 00 30 

Green 22,705 45 100 35 

Jackson 22,986 83-100 36 

Pike 22,257 79-100 35 

Wajme 23,650 39-100 87 

Bear Creek 22,033 68-100 34^ 

Madison 18,692 92-100 29 

Noble 19,901 4-100 31 

Wabash 14,733 67-100 33 • 

Total 241,692 08-100 377 

The county was now (1836) organized. This 
fact, added to the reputation the county had gain- 
ed for richness of soil, heavy timber, abundance 
of game and cheap land, brought new settlers by 
hundreds during this and the several succeeding 
years. Entering land, building houses, clearing 
fields, and cutting out roads, occupied almost ex- 


clusively the attention of the people. Prior to 
this time there had been, during four years, only 
sixty-four entries of land. The following shows 
the number of pieces of land entered in each 
township during this and the following year: 

No entries No entries 

in 1836. In 183T. 

Richland 45 78 

Knox 64 51 

Penn Ill 38 

Jefft^rson 27 157 

Green 24 76 

Jackson 82 57 

Pike 32 116 

Wayne 64 87 

Bear Creek 35 80 

Madison 28 74 

Noble 25 38 

Wabash 26 36 

Total 563 888 

Total for 1836-'7 .1451 

Large numbers also came in who did not enter 
land immediately. This sudden and numerous 
influx — all "early settlers" — precludes all possi- 
bility of our even mentioning their names in this 
work, much less recounting their experiences. 
And, indeed, it is unnecessary. Enough has 
been said of the earlier settlers to exhibit pioneer 
life in all its important aspects. To add more 
from the abundance that might be given, would 
be to tire the reader with the repeated narration 
of similar occurrences. 



Let us now turn our attention to the necessary 
paraphernalia of organization — courts and officers. 
By appointment of Governor Noble, Christopher 
Hanna notified the people that there would be an 
election on the — day of August, 1836, to elect 
county officers. That was the first county election. 
There were but three precincts : one at B. Gold- 
smith's, one at Daniel Farber's, and the third in 
Lick Creek Township, now Blackford County. 
The following persons were elected : Commission- 
ers, John Pingry, Abraham Lotz and Benjamin 
Goldsmith ; Associate Judges, James Graves and 
Enoch Bo wden ; Clerk, Christopher Hanna; Sher- 
iff, Henderson Graves. B. W. Hawkins was a 
candidate for clerk, against Hanna, and had the 

commissioners' court. 129 

vote of Lick Creek Township been returned, 
would have been elected. James Graves did not 
accept the office of Judge, and Obadiah Winters 
was subsequently chosen. 

The first marriage license issued was to Casper 
Geyer and Kachael Clark, April 11th, 1837, and 
they were married on the 18th of April, 1837, by 
"Wade Posey. 

The first session of the Board of County Com- 
misssioners convened at Mr. Cuppy's on the 8th 
of November, 1836. H. H. Cuppy was appointed 
County Treasurer, Lewis S. Farber Assessor, and 
Jacob Bosworth agent to superintend the sale and 
conveyance of the lots donated to the county in 
Portland. Mr, Bosworth not having been in the 
State long enough to be eligible, B. "W". Hawkins 
was appointed in his stead. David Baldwin was 
appointed superintendent of the three-per-cent. 
fund, being three per cent, of the money arising 
from the sale of public lands within the State, 
appropriated to making roads and bridges. That 
office and that of the county agent were very im- 
portant offices at that time. Cuppy was granted 
a license to retail merchandise for one year for 
ten dollars. 

At a special meeting of the Board, December 
5th, 1836, the county seat was named Portland. 
Many persons desired it should be called Pied- 
ville, in honor of Daniel Pied, who donated the 


site. Joshua Pennock was allowed ten dgllars 
for aiding in clearing off the county seat. After- 
ward, John E. Ware, T. N. Jones, William High- 
lander, John Martin and others were paid for 
laying out and clearing the town site. Mr. Ware 
paid his board at Cnppy's by grating corn in the 
evening for meal. D. W. Mc]S eal was appointed 
County Surveyor. The next month he was ap- 
pointed Trustee of the Seminar}^ Fund. Here is 
a copy of the order by which the lirst Court House 
was erected : 

" Wednesday, May 3d, 1837. 
" Ordered^ That there be a house erected on 
some suitable lot in the town of Portland, for the 
use of the county, and that Christopher Hanna 
superintend the letting of the same on the 13th 
da^' of June next. The terms and descriptions 
to be made known on the day of sale." 

No direction being given as to the size, price or 
materials, such an order, in these days of specu- 
lators, would be rather an unsafe specification. 

L. S. Farber was allowed $23.27 for assessing 
the county. James Marquis was appointed Col- 
lector of the taxes for the county. The first tax 
assessed was at this term, being $1.25 on every 
$100 valuation of property for county purposes, 
one cent on every $100 for road purposes, and 
seventy-five cents on every poll. 

September 4, 1837, the Board adjourned from 
the house of Mr. Cuppy to the new log Court 

commissioners' couet. 131 

House, and allowed Robert Huey $123.25 for 
building it. 

D. W. McNeal was allowed $7.75 for surveying 
and platting the town of Portland. 

J. J3. Gillespie was granted a license to keep a 
ferry where the Quaker Trace crossed the Wabash. 
The prolits probably never paid for the license. 

Mr. Cuppy resigned the office of Treasurer, and 
Hawkins C. Fonts was appointed. 

Christopher Hanna was appointed to superin- 
tend the building of a county jail. 

November Term, 1837. At the opening of this 
term Henderson Graves took his seat as Commis- 
sioner, as successor of John Pingry, and P. W. 
Hawkins as Sheriff. 

Thomas Wheat was appointed School Commis- 
sioner. In January, 1838, H. C. Fouts was 
allowed $11.75 for his services as County Treasu- 
rer for four months. At the March Term, 1838, 
John Pingry was appointed Loaning Agent of the 
surplus revenue fund, and William Yail Collector 
of taxes for that year. 

January Term, 1839. Contracted with Moses 
Knapp to build a public Pound for $17.87^. It 
was a post and rail feiice, a i'ew rods north of the 
present jail. 

Robert Huey was granted a license to keep a 
grocery in Portland. This was the first store of 
the kind kept in the place. 

133 commissioners' court. 

Joshua Pen nock had built a jail, for which he 
had received $181 ; but it not being according to 
contract, the Commissioners sued him for damage. 
It was a log house, poorly built, and stood north 
of the present jail. 

A man from Blackford County was at one time 
convicted of stealing a log chain, and sentenced 
to. three or four days' imprisonment. As the jail 
would not hold him, Sberijff Hawkins took him 
home with him, and kept him there rocking the 
. cradle, until his time was out ! 

November Term, 1839. H. C. Fonts was re- 
moved from the Treasurer's office, and William 
T. Shull, now of Blackford County, appointed. 

At this time Lewis N. Byram was contracted 
with to build the walls and roof of a brick Court 
House for $1,750, and he was to "warrant it to 
be a substantial building for twenty years." Wil- 
liam Haines finished the house. The wall was 
very poor ; the building was abandoned in 1859, 
and in March, 1860 was sold at auction for $153. 

In January, 1840, John Pingry got the contract 
for building another jail for $800. That was the 
old log jail sold for $32 in 1862, torn down and 
converted into the wagon shop of y. H. Williams. 

The first term of the Circuit Court, in Jay Coun- 
ty, was held on the 17th day of April, 1837, at 
the house of Henry H. Cuppy, which house is 
still standing on the farm of Colonel Shanks, south 



of Portland, Hon. Charles "W. Ewing, of Fort 
Wayne, president Judge of the Sixth Judicial 
Circuit, and Enoch Bowden, Associate Judge for 
Jay County, occupied the bench. 

Christopher Hanna, was clerk, Henderson 
Graves, sheriff, and Thomas Johnson, of Fort 
Wayne, prosecuting attorney. 

Jeremiah Smith, of Randolph County, was the 
only lawyer present, except the State's attorney. 

The grand jury, at that time, consisted of the 
following named persons : Hewy H^ Cuppy, Ben- 
jamin W. Hawkins, Obadiah Winters, Hawkins 
C. Fouts, James Marquis, David Baldwin, John 
Pingry, Samuel G. Hanna, Conaway Stone, Wil- 
liam Yail, Joseph Wilson, John S. Mays, Daniel 
W. McNeal, William Clark, JohnEblin and James 
Stone. Henry H. Cuppy was foreman, and An- 
derson Ware was bailiff. 

This jury found but one bill of indictment which 
was against two of its members, H. H. Cuppy and 
Daniel W. McJ^eal, for an affray. Cuppy was 
tried, defended by Jer. Smith, and found guilty. 
McNeal plead guilty. This constituted almost 
the entire business of the term. The court was 
in session two days. 

The two succeeding terms were held by the as- 
sociate judges alone, without the aid of president 
judge, prosecuting attorney, or other lawyers. 

The fourth term was held on the 10th day of 


December, 1838, before the associate judges. The 
court, at this term, assumed more importance 
tlian liitherto. Jeremiah Smith acted as prose- 
cuting attorney. Several cases were tried, both 
criminal and civiL 

Jacob Bosworth, Benjamin P. "Wheat and An- 
drew E.ied were appointed school commissioners 
for Jay County. There was quite an array of 
lawyers in attendance. 

In January, 1839, the Eleventh Judicial Cir- 
cuit was formed, of which Jay County constituted 
a part. Morrison Rulon, then a young man, who 
had but recently been admitted to the bar, was, 
by the legislature, elected judge of this new Cir- 
cuit. He resigned, without ever having held a 
court, and David Kilgore was, by the Governor, 
appointed to till the vacancy. 

Judge Kilgore held the office under his ap- 
pointment until December, 1839, , when he was 
elected by the legislature, and held the office until 
the spring of 1816. 

Judge Kilgore has since then served in the con- 
vention for the revision of Constitution of Indiana, 
was speaker of the House in the Indiana legisla- 
ture, and represented the tifth district of Indiana, 
in Congress, two terms. He still resides in Dela- 
ware County, Indiana. 

In December, 1815, Jeremiah Smith was elect- 
ed Judge of the Eleventh Circuit, and served 


until the of 1853. He was succeeded by 
Joseph Anthony, of Delaware Connty, who pre- 
sided over the Circuit Court of Jay County two 
years. He is still a citizen of Delaware County. 

In January, 1855, the Thirteenth Judicial Cir- 
cuit was formed, Jay County constituting a part 
of it. Judge Jeremiah Smith was appointed Judge 
of this Circuit, by the Governor, to serve until 
the next general election. Under this appoint- 
ment he held two terms of the Jay Circuit 

In October, 1855, Jehu T. Elliott was elected 
Judge of the Thirteenth Circuit, and was re- 
elected in 1861. He is at this time Judge of the 
Jay Circuit Court. 

The first associate judges of Jay County were 
Enoch Bowden and Obadiah Winters. Judge 
"Winters served from 1837 until 1850 ; Judge 
Bowdon, from 1837 until 1843, and again from 
1850 to 1851, at which time the associate judges 
were abolished by the adoption of the present 
constitution of Indiana. 

Abraham C. Smith served as associate judge 
from 1843 to 1850, when he was succeeded by 
John Current, who held the position until the 
office was abolished. 

Jehu T. Elliott was the first prosecuting attor- 
ney for the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. He served, 
in that capacity, in Jay County, but one year, and 


was succeeded by Jeremiah Smith, who served 
two years. John M. "Wallace next filled that 
office for one term of two years. Mr. Wallace 
then resided in Madison County, but afterward 
removed to Grant County, where he still resides. 
He has been Judge of the Judicial Circuit in 
which he lives, and, since the rebellion broke out, 
he was for a time Adjutant General for the State 
of Indiana, and, more recently, was an assistant 
paymaster in the army of the United States. 

John Davis, of Madison Count}^, succeeded 
Judge Wallace as Circuit presiding attorney. 
The oflfice was next filled by Joseph S. Buckles, 
of Delaware Count}^, who served until 1848. 

Mr. Buckles has since been a member of the 
State Senate, and is now Judge of the Eleventh 
Judicial Circuit. He is still a resident of Dela- 
ware County. 

In 1849, the law having been changed so as to 
provide for the election of a prosecuting attorney 
for each county, John P. C. Shanks was first ap- 
pointed and afterward elected by the people to 
fill that office, and served two years. 

Mr. Shanks was born near Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia, came to Jay County with his father, in 
1840, studied law with Judge N. B. Hawkins, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1849. He represented 
Jay County in the Indiana Legislature, in 1855, 
wa*s elected to Congress in 1860, and served on 


General Fremont's staff in his memorable Missouri 
Campaign. By his exertions the Tth Indiana 
cavah'j regiment was raised, of which he was ap- 
pointed Colonel, and is now serving in that capac- 
ity. He gave his earnest support to all the great 
measures adopted by the Thirty-Sixth Congress of 
which he was a member. In 1862 he was re-nom- 
inated, by acclamation, by his party, for re-elec- 
tion, but was defeated. 

In 1851, the law authorizing the election of a 
prosecuting attorney for each county, having been 
repealed, David Moss, of Hamilton County, was 
elected prosecuting attorney for the Eleventh 
Circuit. ■ He was succeeded by William Garver, 
of the same county. 

Silas Colgrove, then and now a resident of Ran- 
dolph County, held the office of prosecuting attor- 
ney from 1853 to 1856. He has several times 
represented that county in the Indiana Legisla- 
ture. He is now Colonel of the 27tli regiment of 
Indiana volunteers, in which capacity he has seen 
much service, and has been twice severely wound- 
ed. Colonel Colgrove was succeeded in the office 
of prosecuting attorney by Thomas M. Browne, 
of Randolph County, who filled that office six 
years. Mr. Browne has been a member of the 
State Senate, was on General Wood's staff at the 
battle of Shiloh, is now Lieutenant Colonel of the 
7th Indiana cavalry and was lately wounded. 


James N. Templer, of Jay County, was elected 
to the office of prosecuting attorney in 1861, and 
still holds that office. Mr. Templer came to Jay 
County, with his father, when a boy, was educated 
at Farmers' Academy and Liber College, studied 
Law with Judge Haynes, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1857. 

Christopher Hanna was the first clerk of the 
Jay Circuit Court. He served until the year 1843 
when he was succeeded by B. W. Hawkins, who 
held the office until 1850. Ira Denney was his 
successor, and filled the office until 1859, when 
B. W. Hawkins was again elected, and still holds 
the office. 

Henderson Graves was the first Sheriff of Jay 
County by election. He served until the fall of 
1849, when he was succeeded by B. W. Hawkins. 
Mr. Hawkins served four years, and was succeed- 
ed by Robert Huey, who filled the office until the 
fall of 1844, when Jason Whipple was elected. 

Two years later, Hugh P. Hanna succeeded 
Mr. Whipple, and, after serving four years, Alex- 
ander Johnson became his successor. Mr. John- 
son filled the office until 1854, when Jacob E. 
Lotz was elected. In 1856 Alexander Johnson 
was again elected Sheriff, and, after serving two 
years, he was in turn succeeded by Mr. J. E. Lotz, 
who held the office until 1862, when Alexander 
Hanlin, the present incumbent, was elected. 


The first term of the Probate Court of Jay 
County was held at the Court-house in Portland, 
on the 14tli day of May, 1838, before Enoch Bow- 
don and Obadiah Winters, assistant judges of the 
Circuit Court. 

The first letters of administration were granted 
to Ellis Davis on the estate of Aaron Eigby, de- 
ceased, the 20th day of September, 1837. The 
associate judges also held a term of the Probate 
Court in November, 1838. 

In August, 1839, George C. Whiteraan was 
^ elected Probate Judge for Jay County, and con- 
» tinned in that office until the court was abolished, 
in 18.52. 

The first term of the Court of Common Pleas for 
Jay County, was held by Nathan B. Hawkins, on 
the iTth day of January, 1853. The common 
pleas district then consisted of the counties of 
Randolph and Jay.* Judge Hawkins was elected 
judge of this district in October, 1852, and died, 
in ofiice, in October, 1853. 

There were but few men who occupied a more 
prominent position in Jay County, during the 
period of his manhood that he spent in the county, 
tlian Nathan B. Hawkins. He came to the coun- 
ty with his father in 1829, and remained here until 
he was about sixteen years of age, when he went 
to Wayne County, Indiana. He there went into 
mercantile business, first as a clerk, and after- 


ward on his own acconnt, remaining in that 
county nntil 1839, when lie returned to Jay 
and engaged in selling goods at Portland. Ilav- 
ing a taste for study, he employed his leisure 
hours in reading Blackstone. At the May term 
of the Jay Circuit Court, 1841, he was admitted 
to the bar, and immediately commenced the prac- 
tice of law. In 1842 he represented the counties 
of Jay and Adams in the Legislature of Indiana, 
and was a member of tbe convention for the revi- 
sion of the Constitution of Indiana, in 1850, — rep- 
resenting the counties of Eandolph, 'Jay and 
Blaclcfoid. Judge Hawkins M-as a man of decid- 
ed ability, an excellent business man, a fluent, 
forcible speaker, and a successful lawyer. He 
was a good citizen, of generous impulses, public 
spirited and liberal. His early death was regret- 
ted by all who knew him. 

He died at his residence, in Portland, on the 
20th of October, 1852, aged 41 years. 

James Brown, of Randolph County, where he 
still resides, was appointed by the Governor to fill 
the oflfice of Common Pleas Judge, until the suc- 
ceeding general election. He lias represented 
that county in the Indiana Legislature. 
^ In 1854 William A. Peelle was elected Judge 
of the Common Pleas Court, and held the oflice 
two years. At tbe time of his election he was a 
citizen of Eandolph County. At the expiration of 

J. M. HAYNES. 141 

his term he resumed the practice of law. In 1860 
he was elected Secretary of State^ which office he 
held two years. He is now engaged in the law 
practice at Centreville, Indiana; In 1856 Jacob 
M. Ilaynes, of Jay Coiinty, was elected Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. In 1860 the district 
was enlarged so as to consist of the counties of 
Randolph, Delaware, Jay and Blackford, and 
Judge Ilaynes was the same year elected to pre- 
side over the courts of tlie enlarged district, which 
position he still holds. 

Judge Playnes came to Portland to commence 
his career as a lawyer, where he still remains. 
He has always identified himself with the best in- 
terests of Jay County. His integrity of charac- 
ter, honesty of purpose and thorough knowledge 
of his profession, have given him the confidence 
of the people in an eminent degree, and made him 
a successful, honest lawyer. He prepared for 
college at Monson Academy, Massachusetts, and 
took a literary course at Phillips' Academy, An- 
dover, Massachusetts. He commenced the study 
of law with Hon. Linus Child, at Southbridge, in 
the same State. In September, 1843, he came 
West, resumed the study of law with Hon. Walter 
March, of Muncie, Indiana, where he taught the 
Delaware County Seminary, and was admitted 
to the bar in March, 181:4:. At the age of twenty- 
seven, in December, 184:1:, he came to Portland, 


where, in 1846, he married Miss Hilinda T. 
Haines. He was appointed School Commissioner 
in 1846, to fill a vacancy, which occun-ed by the 
resignation of "Wilson Milligan. In August of 
the same year he was elected to that office, and 
served for two years; he was appointed School 
Examiner in 1848, which office he filled for four 

The first prosecuting attorney of the common 
pleas court of Jay County was William Moorman, 
who was succeeded by John J. Cheney, and he 
by Enos L. "Watson, all of Randolph County. 
Thomas J. Hosford, of Delaware County, held the 
office from 1860 to 1862, when Enos L. Watson 
was again elected, and still holds the office. 

The lawyers who have been residents of Jay 
County are Moses Jenkinson, Morrison E-ulon, 
IS'athan B. Hawkins, Jacob M. Haynes, John P. 
C. Sliauks, James B. Jaqua, John E.. Perdieu, 
John W. Headington, James N. Templer, "Wil- 
liam D. Frazee, John J. Hawkins, David V. Ba- 
ker and Allen Jaqua. 

Moses Jenkinson now resides at Fort "Wayne, 
Indiana ; is a lawyer of considerable note, and has 
represented Allen County in the State Legisla- 
ture. He removed from Jay County in 1845. 
Morrison Rulon was twice elected to the legisla- 
ture from Jay County ; is now a resident of Union 
City, Indiana. 


"W". D. Frazee remained in Jay^ County but a 
short time ; is now engaged in the law practice at 
Decatur, Indiana. 

J. W. Headington resides at Portland, and is 
now Major of the 100th regiment Indiana Volun- 

Messrs. Jaqua, Perdieu, Templer, Hawkins, 
Baker and A. Jaqua are still residents of Port- 

Among the attorneys not residents of Jay 
County, who have practiced in its courts, are 
Jeremiah Smith, Moorman Way, Zachariah Puck- 
et, Beattie McClelland, Silas Colgrove, William 
A. Peelle, James Brown and Thomas M, Browne, 
of Randolph County ; Joseph Anthony, Thomas 
Anthony, Andrew Kennady, Thomas J. Sample 
and Walter March, of Delaware County. 

John Brownlee, of Grant County, also attended 
the courts of Jay County. He acted as prosecut- 
ing attorney at the October term, 1839. 

The following shows the names of those who 
have been members of the Board of County Com- 
missioners, when they assumed the office, and ex- 
piration of their terms : 

John Pingry 1836-'37 Abraham Lotz 1836-'38 

John Pingry 1838-'40 Benj. Goldsmith. . . .1836-'39 

Henderson Graves. .1837-39 Jacob Bosworth 1838-39 

Timothy Stratton. . .1839-'45 Josiah H. Topping. .1839-'41 

George White 1840-'43 Ammon Cook 1841-'44 


Samuel Hall l843-'46 Jacob Bosworth 1843-'46 

John Reed 1844-'46 Joseph Roach 1845-'46 

William Gemmell . . . 184G-'49 Sumner Griffin 1846-'50 

John GofF 1849-'o2 David Money 1849-'52 

Wm. H. Wade 18o0-'o6 Isaac Myres 1852-'54 

William Gemmell. . . 18o2-'58 Alexander Jackson. . 1854-'58 

Vynul Arnett 1858-'64 Wm. B. Miller 1858-61 

M. A. Smith 1856-'62 Alexander Jackson. .1801-' G4 

Eli Bales 1862-'— 

Jay County was first represented in tlie State 
Legislature by Lewis W. Purviance, of Hunting- 
ton County, in 1839. The district was then com- 
posed of Jay, Adams, Wells, Whitley and Hun- 
tington counties. In 1840 it was represented b}'' 
Morrison Rulon. In 1841 the district embraced 
only Adams and Jay counties, and Elder Robert 
Tisdale, of Adams, was the representative. He 
was succeeded by Nathan B. Hawkins in 1842, 
and he by Samuel S. Mickle, of Adams, who has 
since been in the State Senate. The representa- 
tives succeeding were as follows : 1844, Robert 
Huey, of Jay County ; 1845, S. S. Mickle, of 
Adams. In 1846 the district was composed of 
Jay and Blackford counties, and "William F. Jones, 
of the latter county, was the representative ; 
1847, Morrison Rulon ; 1848, George S. Howell, 
of Blackford ; 1849, Robert Huey ; 1850, William 
T. Shull, of Blackford; 1851, Joseph W. Holli- 
day, of Blackford. Mr. Ilolliday was a lawyer of 
Blackford County ; was elected representative to 


the legislature for Jaj and Blackford counties in 
the year 1847. Before the meeting of the legisla- 
ture he resigned and went to the Mexican war as 
lieutenant of a company of volunteers. He died 
in 1851, about the close of the session of the 

In 1852 Jay County became entitled to a repre- 
sentative independent of other counties, and Rob- 
ert Iliiey was elected ; in 1851:, J, P. C. Shanks ; 
in 1856, Joseph J. McKinney ; in 1858, George 
C. Whiteman ; in 1800, Isaac Underwood, and in 
1862, Samuel A. Shoaff. 

The following persons have been State Senators 
from districts of which Jay County has been a 
part : In 1839, John Foster ; in 1840, Michael 
Aker, of Randolph ; in 1843, Isaac F. Wood ; in 
1846, Dixon Milligan, of Jay ; in 1849, Jacob 
Brugh, of Blackford; in 1851, Thomas D. M. 
Longshore, of Randolph ; in 1853, Theophilus 
Wilson, of Jay ; in 1857, Daniel Hill, of Ran- 
dolph; in 1861, David Studabaker, of Adams, 
and in 1863, George S. Brown, of Wells. 

Henry H. Cuppy was the first County Treasurer 
and Hawkins C. Fonts the next. His successor 
was William T. Shull, who was succeeded in 1841 
by Jonas Yotaw, who held the ofiice^ until 1853, 
at which time Alexander White took it, but died 
in 1855, before the expiration of his term. G. W. 
Templer filled the vacancy thus occurring, and in 


1856 was elected and served two years. Joseph 
P. Winters served from 1858 until 1862, when 
Royal Denney was elected, and resigned in July, 
1864, when Thomas Black was appointed to till 
the vacancy. 

Prior to 1850 the County Auditors were Alex- 
ander White and Joseph Wilson. At this time 
John Coulson took the office and served until 
1859, when William G. Sutton was elected, and 
is the present incumbent. 

Geo. W. Templer was the first County Record- 
er (1843), and was succeeded in 1850 by Thomas 
Black, who served until 1859. Harvey Humphries 
was then elected, and served until 1863, when 
Cyrus Stanle}'' was elected, and now holds the 

D. W. MclSTeal was the first Surveyor, was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Brown, in 1842, and he^ by 
William H. Montgomery, in 1845, who served 
until 1852, when John C. Bailey was elected ; 
in 1856, Nimrod Headington ; in 1858, Thomas 
Brown, who served two years, and in 1862, B. R. 
McCoy, the present incumbent. 



Much of the early history of the townships can 
never be obtained. The official reports of the 
first elections are not in existence. The records 
of the County Commissioners appointing the elec- 
tions, and the recollections of the early inhabit- 
ants, are the only sources from which any infor- 
mation can now be drawn. From the former we 
can only learn the time at which these elections 
were held. The facts ascertained from the first 
settlers concerning them are vague, uncertain and 
often contradictory. An instance will illustrate : 
In one township the confident testimony of the 
earliest residents would show that the first elec- 
tion was held at three different places and at as 
many different times. Similarly conflicting state- 
ments are given in most of the townships. The 


mem'>rj of the pioneers is confused by the fact 
that at most of the precincts several special elec- 
tions were held during the tirst year or two after 
tlie township organization. This leads many to 
give the first election they attended as the first 
township election. The same uncertainty exists, 
also, with reference to the officers of the election 
and the persons elected. In these circumstances, 
that only is stated here which is known to be true- 

The first township organized, was Penn, by 
oi'der of the County Commissioners at their iirst 
sitting. It was named by Samuel Grissell, in 
honor of William Penn. The iirst house was 
built by John Gain, in 1823 ; the first settler was 
John Brooks ; the next was Moses Hamilton, who 
remained long enough to acquire the honorable 
distinction of first permanent settler. Samuel 
Grissell came next, and was soon followed by 
John McCoy, both in 1831. 

The town of Camden was laid out August 27th, 
1836, by Jeremiah Smith, Samuel Grissell being 
the proprietor. It was first called New Lisbon . 
Mr. Grissell made a sale of town lots. Job Carr 
being the auctioneer, and sold at prices varying 
from $15 to $30. John D. Jones built the first 
house in the summer of 1836, (William Samuels 
had partially raised a house before this,) and be- 
came the first settler. It took the few hands that 
could be collected three days to raise it. The 

CAMDEN. 149 

town site was then partly cleared of underbrush, 
but Mr. Jones has the honor of having taken out 
the first " grub." The elections for several years 
were generally held at his house. William 
Samuels was the second person to settle in the 

In 1836 H. Z. Jenkins brought his family from 
Ohio, and a stock of goods, consigned to him to 
sell on commission, with which he opened the 
first store in the town — first occupying Job Carr's 
house, just west of the town, and afterward one of 
his own, in the village. Mrs. Jenkins generally 
waited on the customers. Job Carr, junior, kept 
the second store ; and in April, 1839, Anthony 
Pifcnam, now of Richmond, Indiana, opened the 
third. The Friends built the first meeting house 
in the township, situated east of the town. This 
log house, though still standing, is now superceded 
by a neat frame structure. At the first meeting 
held in Camden, by the Methodists, H. Z. Jenkins 
joined the church. James Coulson and his wife 
H. Z. Jenkins, Mary Belong and Sarah Gove 
formed the first class. Mr. Joseph A. Lupton 
was the first blacksmith, opening a shop in the 
winter of 1839-'40. Stephen Kees and Joseph J. 
Paxsgu were among the earliest pioneers of the 
north part of the township. The prudent fore- 
thought of Joshua Bond led him to bring a pair 
of hand mill stones when he moved from Ohio. 


These be made into a Land grist mill, in tlie 
spring of 1836, which was the first mill in Jay 
Cuunty. There was mnch rejoicing in tlie vicin- 
ity when this successor to the hominy block was 
put in operation. It was constantly thronged, 
each man grinding bis own grist, no toll being 
charged. But it would by no means supply the 
demand, and Mr. Bond soon fixed it to run by 
horse-power. This contrivance also failed to sup- 
ply the wants of the region, and in 1837 Mr. Bond 
built a good mill, which was run by four to eiglit 
horses. That was the most celebrated mill ever 
erected in Jay County. To it the settlers flocked 
from far and near, some coming twenty miles. No 
public improvement was ever more welcome to 
the needy settlers. Sometimes so many w^ould 
be at the mill over night that there was not room 
on the floor of Mr. Bond's house for all of them 
to lie down. This mill was in the basement of 
the loo; barn, in which he afterward built a thresh- 
inof machine. That was the first threshing: 
machine in the county. The customers then 
brought their grain to the mill in sheaves and 
took it away in flour ! What modern mill can 
excel this pioneer establishment? 

About 1838 Samuel Grissell started a saw mill 
on the Salimonie by Camden, and in IS-H put in 
operation a water grist mill. In 1850 Mr. Gris- 
sell and Lukins Griflith built a steam saw mill, 


and the same year built the steam grist mill now 
owned bj SamiKil A. Shoaff. 

The iirst election in Penn Township is involved 
in much obscurity. The County Commissioners' 
record shows that the first election appointed was 
to be held at New Lisbon (Camden) on the second 
Saturday in December, 1836, Samuel Grissell, In- 
spector. At the January terjn, 1837, another 
election was ordered, to be held at Jonathan 
Iliatt's, John M. Carr, Inspector, on the last Sat- 
urday of that month. And again, at the May 
term, 1837, still another election was appointed 
for the first Saturday in June — place not given. 
All these elections were to elect a Justice. Elihu 
Hamilton says he was elected the first Justice at 
the election held at Jonathan Hiatt's ; that he 
would not accept the office, and that at a subse- 
quent election, Ellis Davis was elected. The first 
township officers were appointed by the Commis- 
sioners in May, 1837, and were as follows : In- 
spector, Elihu Hamilton ; Supervisor, Jonathan 
Hiatt; Overseers of the Poor, Joshua Bond and 
William Swallow ; Fence ^ iewers, Moses Ham- 
ilton and David Canady. 

Levi Johnson, Esq., for twelve years Justice 

of the Peace in Jackson Township, taught the 

first school in Penn Township in the winter of 

1837-'38, in a log house which stood near the 

^present residence of Jesse Gray, jun. 


The Post Office was established in Camden on 
the 19th of January, 1839, and John D. Jones 
appointed Postmaster. He held the office just six 
days, durincr which time he opened one mail and 
found one letter for that office. John M. Carr 
succeeded Mr. Jones as Postmaster. It was first 
called Penn, then changed to Pennville, 

Bear Creek Towistship was organized in No- 
vember, 1836, the first election held on the second 
Saturday in December, 1836, at the house of John 
Pingry, Biram A. Peareon being Inspector. The 
first township officers were as follows : .Inspector, 
James Marquis ; Supervisors, William Vail and 
James Marquis ; Overseers of the Poor, William 
Baldwin and Edward Buford ; Fence Yi ewers, 
Frederick Wible and William Gray. 

The first settler was John Pingry, sen. The 
first store was kept by Lewis N. Byram, at Bloom- 
field. The first Post Office (Bear Creek) in the 
township was also at Bloomfield, established on 
the Yth of February, 1840, L. N. Byram, Post- 
master, On the 14th of July, 1851, the office 
was removed to West Liberty, in Jackson Town- 
ship, and W. P. Coldren appointed Postmaster ; 
but in July the following year it was returned to 
Bloomfield, and J. L. Grigsby became Postmaster, 
John H. Smith holds the office at present, and is 
the only merchant in the place. In 1854 George 
W, Porter started the first store at West Chester, 


and in April of that year the Post Office was estab- 
lished there, and he was appointed the Postmas- 
ter. Soon after, A. K. McGriff and I. N. Green 
purchased the store, and they sold it to William H. 
Montgomery,- who still remains there and is the 
present Postmaster. Monroe Post Office was 
established on the 24th of November, 1854, and 
John A. Smith appointed Postmaster, who held 
the office until July, 1864; when it was discontin- 
ued on account of a change in the mail route. It 
was on the Wabash river, near the farm of Wil- 
liam Siberry, sen. 

The lirst marriage in the township was that of 
Addison D. May and Miss Lucinda Pingry, Nov, 
6, 1834, by William Odle, Esq., of Deerlield. In 
the fall of 1835, Tandy Dempsey came to John 
Pingry's, and on the 8th of August, 1836, he died, 
being the first death in the township. In 1836 a 
large hickory tree caught fire near Mr. Pingry's. 
The fire ran up the tree about forty feet, there 
burned it ofi", and then slowly and constantly 
burned downward for nearly one year. It was 
known as the '" burning tree." 

James Marquis and family settled on the farm 
now owned by Kev. Aaron Worth, April 14th, 
1836, purchasing the claim of Michael Zimmer- 
man, who lived in a split log house. The chick- 
ens roosted on the joists at one corner of the 
house, while at one end on the outside was a shed. 


under which the horses were kept, and, at the 
other, against the chimnev, there was a pig 
pen. In May, of this year, a Methodist Episcopal 
class was formed at Mr. Marquis' house, being the 
first religious organization in Jay County. The 
members were: James Marquis, William Yail, 
Jesse Gray, senior, David and William Baldwin, 
and their wives. 

]n June, 1837, Mr. Marquis commenced build- 
ing a water grist mill on that place, and, in Janu- 
ary, 1838, put it in operation — the second mill of 
the kind in the county. Like all other pioneer 
mflls it was a great blessing to a large section of 
country. Many persons were waiting at the mill 
to get some grinding done when it started. Per- 
sons came to that mill from Adams, Wells and 
Blackford counties. Most persons came <m horse- 
back, some on ponies, and some brought their 
grists on their shoulders. 

In March, 1839, he started a saw-mill, the first 
one in Jay County. 

The first temperance meeting ever held in the 
county was also held at Mr. Marquis' house, in 
1837. In 1839 the first temperance society was 
organized in the same neighborhood, and Dr. 
Jacob Bosworth delivered an address full of sound 
sense and convincing arguments. The follow- 
ing scraps are specimens of its bold, manly utter- 
ances : 


" Intemperance is incompatible witli genuine patriotism. 

Tliis virtue is not to be conceded to the drunkard. Tliis no- 
ble and generous plant cannot live in a soul so uncultivated 
so overrun with foul and noxious weeds. Can a man be a 
patriot who violates every obligation of domestic and social 
life ? whose example is a moral pestilence in the community, 
and who, for the sake of a beastly gratification, inflicts misery 
and wrong upon all who have the unhappiness to be connect- 
ed with him. The good man loves his country because it 
contains much that is excellent and much that is dear to him. 
He knows it to be the home of the wise and good, of his kin- 
drefl and friends, whom he venerates; he reveres the liberal 
and holy institutions it contains ; in their prosperity and per- 
petuity he takes the deepest interest, and his most 
s trenuous eiforts are ever ready to remove what is evil and 
to advance that which is excellent and useful. Nothing of 
this kind can be attribiited to the drunkard. His conduct 
and example, instead of advancing the welfiire of his country, 
are eminently calculated to destroy its best interests. Do 
patriots discourage habits of industry and encourage habits 
of idleness, pauperism and crime ? Intemperance destroys 
the intelligence and virtue of the people — those pillars of our 
republican system ! it endangers our civil and religious insti- 
tutions, with all that is held dear by the true patriot." 

Signed to the pledge of that society are nearly 
one hundred names, embracing persons living in 
all parts of the county. 

The first settler on the Limberlost, between 
William Gibson and William Chapman, was Ira 
Towle, who came in the spring of 1837. In three 
weeks Samuel Towle settled beside him. Within 
the next year or two a whole settlement of East- 
ern people joined them. John C. Montgomery, 


Ilarrj Reed, Reuben Montgomery, David Antles, 
George Axe, M. P. Montgomery, and Aaron and 
Thomas Brown. Ira Towle burned the top of a 
hirge stump in concave shape, which answered for 
a hominy block, and above it built a frame, in 
which was a contrivance to pound the corn in the 
stump. In this way the neighbors made their 
meal. Samuel Towle kept many travelers the 
iirst year. Twenty-five strangers staid in his 
fourteen by-twenty -feet cabin one niglit. They 
lay upon the floor, commencing under the bed, 
the last one lying by the door, who had to get up 
in the morning before it could be opened ! For 
three years John C. Montgomery's house, which 
stood just north of Westchester, was most of the 
time full of v/estward travelers on the tiantington 
road. Sometimes they went in caravans; at one 
time forty, at another seventy persons were in one 
company. Once, when Mr. Montg. mery was 
sick, he put his gun out of the window and shot 
a wild turkey, which with a fiock had come into 
the door-yard. The wolves killed several calves 
for Samuel Towle, and once caught a deer and 
tore it in pieces within fifteen rods of his door. 

A whirlwind more terrific than any storm that 
has since visited Jay County occurred on the 2Sth 
of March, 1840. It commenced half a mile west 
of Adam Stolz', near Westchester, taking nearly 
an eastern direction. A very small cloud first 


appeared, which soon began to whirl, and in a few 
moments the sky presented a vast mass of confused 
whirling clouds. It would strike the earth, and 
follow the ground for perhaps half a mile, then 
rise above the trees, and soon again descend and 
renew its devastations. Its disastrous track was 
not more than forty rods wide. It took half the 
roof from Mr. Stolz' house, and tore down all the 
trees in his fields. It appeared to be in the height 
of its fury when it reached the old farm of "Wil- 
liam H, Montgomery. Darkness came as sud- 
denly as the tornado ; — the terrible roaring and 
crashing swallowed up all other sounds.' The 
windows were blown in, and while the family 
endeavored to hold blankets against them, one 
side of the floor rose up several inches, the roof 
was taken off and carried several rods, and a limb 
fell into the chamber which took two men to lift. 
A straw bonnet belonging to Miss Jane A. Mont- 
gomery was torn to pieces, wrapped around a 
large tree, and the tree lying upon the ground. A 
dress belonging to Mrs. Harriet Walter was taken 
four and a half miles, and left in a tree top. All 
the fences were scattered ; trees were torn down, 
and nothing fairly in its course withstood its fury. 
Trees three and four feet in diameter were twisted 
into splinters or snapped ofJ, as if by the power 
of Him who holds the winds in the hollow 
of His hand. When it reached the farm of Eben- 


ezer Drake, Mrs. Drake was at home, alone with 
the children. With commendable forethought 
she took up a puncheon, put the children into a 
hole under the floor, and was just going down 
herself when a piece of flying timber struck her, 
inflicting severe injury. In a few moments the 
storm had passed, and she found only a few rounds 
of logs left of their house. Its noise was heard, 
distinctly a distance of nine miles. A similar 
whirlwind passed through Madison Township 
before any families hatl settled in Jay. 

The first settler in Wabash Township was Peter 
Studabaker (1821) ; the second was Orman Per- 
ring, and the third was William Gibson. The 
first election was held at William Gibson's, on flie 
23d of September, 1837. John B. Gillespie set- 
tled on what is now the town site of New Corj'-- 
don in 1837, and in 1839 built the old grist mill, 
having only a brush dam. In 1811 Samuel Ilall 
built a saw mill on the south side of the river. 
James Gillespie erected a saw mill adjoining the 
gristmill, in 1812. In August, 1843, Theophilus 
Wilson purchased the town site and the Gillespie 
Mills, brought a stock of goods, and opened the 
first store. Gillespie had laid ofi" a few town lots 
in 1840, but none had been sold. In March, 1844, 
Mr. Wilson employed, Thomas Brown to survey 
the town of New Corydon. Jesse Snyder put up 
the first blacksmith's shop in 1844. Theophilus 


"Wilson put a tan yard in operation in 1845, which 
he afterward sold to Timothy H. Parker, who dis- 
posed of it to David Walter, the present owner. 
In 1845 Almon Sparling opened a cooper's shop. 
Wilson's store was the only one in the town until 
1847, when Joshua Gift'ord commenced selling 
goods, and continued until his death, in Septem- 
ber, 1853, Wilson sold his store to Sherburne A. 
Lewis in 1848, who subsequently took C. J. 
Plumb as a partner, and the store was kept in 
Plumb's house, at the lower end of Main street, 
which ha? since been a hotel. Samuel Hall and 
Harper Tyson sold goods a few months in Wil- 
son's old stand, were succeeded by C. W. Scott, 
he by J. B. Cecil, and he by David Beardslee, 
whom George Steckel bought out, continuing the 
business, though at present in the hundred-days' 
service of his country. 

The first school kept in the township was by 
Miss Elizabeth Montgomery, now Mrs. Thomas 
Towle, in the summer of 1840. The first school 
in New Corydon was taught in the summer of 
1844, by Miss Sophronia Lewis, — a hewed log 
" smoke house" being converted into a school- 
room. A Post Office was established at New 
Corydon in September, 1844, and T. Wilson ap- 
pointed Postmaster, who held the office until Jan- 
uary 1st, 1852, when he resigned in favor of C. 
W. Scott, who resigned in a year, and George 


Stolz was appointed. He is the present incum- 
bent, and also has a store. 

In 1844 tlie Rev. I. N. Taylor was stopping at 
Mr. Wilson's, who had just been repairing his old 
log house by ceiling up the rafters. Mr. Taylor 
proposed that a Presbyterian Church should be 
built there, and when Mr. "Wilson made some 
objection he read to him these words from Hosea : 
"Is it time for you to dwell in your ceiled house, 
and this house lie waste? Go up to the moun- 
tains, and bring wood and build the house, and I 
will dwell in it, and I will be glorified, saith the 
Lord." Mr. "Wilson replied, "You have got the 
Bible on your side ; we will build the house !" and 
immediately gave Mr. Taylor the choice of his 
lots, and started a snbscription paper by putting 
his name down for fifty dollars. The paper was 
circulated, and persons signed work, lumber, haul- 
ing, grain, etc., no money being promised. Rev. 
I. ISI. Taylor and the Limberlost settlement aided 
very much. Mr. Reuben Montgomery took the 
subscription and built the house for $250, without 
money. This pioneer church has been occupied 
b}^ all denominations with good feeling. In 1855 ' 
a Methodist Church was built. 

The first Sabbath School in 'New Corydon was 
established on the 26th of June, 1842. The pre- 
liminary steps of organization were taken at the 
house of Asahel W. Lewis, in February previous. 



The old mills have now good successors. About 
1858 John Hall and Vynul Arnett started a steam 
saw mill on the south bank of the river at the 
bridi^e, and in August, 1859, set in operation a 
steam grist mill. In 1862 William and Henry 
McMakin erected a large water grist mill at the 
old mill site. All these mills are now in success- 
ful operation. In 1859 Henry Reed opened a 
drug store in l!*[ew Corydon, which he still owns. 

The earliest minister in Wabash Township was 
Elder Robert Tisdale, a Baptist. He continued 
to travel and preach until his death, at a good old 
age, at Montpelier, in the autumn of 1856. In 
early times he carried a hatchet with him, in the 
winter, with which, fastened to a pole by withes or 
linden bark, he would sit on his horse and cut the 
ice before him, sometimes making but three or 
four miles a day, camping out at night or climb- 
ing a tree to avoid the wolves. He traveled ex- 
tensively over Indiana and sections of Ohio ; was 
a strong advocate of temperance and Sabbath 
Schools ; noted for long s ermons, and in late years 
for his liberal Christian sentiments. 

Rev. F. Baldwin, Rev. J. W. Allen, Rev. Mr. 
Drury and Elder Chaffee were, at different pe- 
riods, the preachers for the Baptist church at New 
Corydon, until 1854, when Rev. J. C. Skinner 
became its pastor, and still holds that relation. 

In 1817, Rev. J. H. Babcock preached for the 


Congregational church of New Corydon, but died 
the following year. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Loose, who 
remained some over one year, when Rev. James 
Boggs became the pastor of that church and the 
Presbyterian church on the Limberlost, and con- 
tinued until 1S54, when he moved to Clinton, In- 
diana, and afterward to Fairton, New Jersey, 
where he still resides. Rev. Joseph H. Jones 
then became pastor of the two churches, and still 
retains that position. He settled first in Adams 
County, bnt, in 1863, moved to "Westchester, where 
he now resides. 

The many Methodist circuit preachers in New 
Corydon and other circuits in the county, deserve 
honorable mention for their self-denying labors in 
the dissemination of christian principles, but their 
large number prevents us from obtaining a com- 
plete sketch. 

Among the most valuable of the Jay County 
pioneers was Theophilus Wilson. He settled in 
Liberty Township, Mercer County, Ohio, in 1811, 
where he bartered goods for the furs, skins, deer 
hams and everything the surrounding forest pro- 
duced. He settled on the Wabash in 1813, from 
which time his identity with the physical, moral 
and political interests of Jay was conspicuous. He 
was the proprietor of New Corydon, its first mer- 
chant, post-master, and leading spirit in all reli- 


gioiis, temperance, educational and other en- 
terprises, while he remained. He was loved 
and respected by all who knew him, always relied 
on as a citizen who was constantly looking to the 
best interests of the community. He represented 
this county and Randolph in the State Senate 
one term. His ceaseless activity, superior intelli- 
gence and large generosity made his loss deeply 
felt by the people, especially those at New Cory- 
den, who knew him best.'when he moved to Avon- 
dale, near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1855, where he 
now resides, as deeply interested in Jay as though 
he were yet a citizen. 

Noble Township was organized in September, 
1837. It was named in honor of Noah Noble, 
Governor of Indiana from 1831 to 1837. 

The Urst settlers were James Stone and Hen- 
derson Graves. The first election was held at 
James Graves', who was elected the first Justice 
of the Peace. Here the name Limberlost finds its 
source. This singular name was given this 
stream from the/ollowing circumstance: A man 
named James Miller, while hunting along its 
banks, became lost. After various fruitless efforts 
to find his way home, in M-hich he would always 
come around to the place of starting, he determined 
he would go on a straight course, and so, every 
few rods would blaze a tree. While doing this he 
was found by his friends who were hunting him. 


Beins^ an agile man, he was known as " limber 
Jim," and, after this, the stream was called " Lim- 
berlost." A cnrious phenomenon can be seen in 
its waters. Bubbles are constantly rising, which, 
on reaching the surface, burst and leave an oily 
substance upon the water. Perhaps they are 
ebullitions from a coal oil fountain. Among the 
many hunters who have lived in this township, 
perhaps David Money is chief. lie first settled 
about half a mile from the Jay County line, in 
Ohio, October, 1830, moving into IN'oble Town- 
ship in May, 1839, his brother Alexander hav- 
ing preceded him several years. Hunting has 
been his chief business during life, and in this 
respect he has acquired considerable celebrity and 
much skill. The lirst winter after settling in this 
county, he hunted steadily for three weeks, killing 
from three to nine deer each day, except two days, 
on each of which he killed two. During that fall 
and wnnter he killed one hnndred and twenty 
deer! He received, at one time, one hundred dol- 
lars in Fort Wayne, for furs anc^ skins. At one 
time he was hunting with a companion who lost 
his gun-lock. Mr. Money sent him back to hunt 
the lock, and take care of the deer they had 
already shot, telling him that he (Money) would 
meet him at a certain place the next day, at noon. 
At the appointed time they met, and, since their 
separation, the old hunter had killed eleven deer 


and one fox ! The next winter he hunted three 
weeks, and killed sixty-seven deer. He took to 
market at one time thirty-two deer, all having 
their skins on. There were two sleigh loads of 
them. The first sleigh had a fine old buck 
with high horns and many " points," standing 
erect at the front, presenting a most novel and 
amusing spectacle. Daring his life he has killed 
eighteen deer at nine shots, two at each time. 
Onl}'- a few years ago he shot thirty-two consecu- 
tive times at deer, foxes, pheasants and other 
game, without missing. His chief hunting 
ground, in later years, has been Paulding County, 
Ohio, whither he goes once or twice a year, camps 
in the woods, after the good old hunting style, 
and hunts for weeks at a time. In the fall of 
1861 he killed eleven deer and one wolf in that 

A Post-office was established in Noble Town- 
ship, May 28th, 1851, called Hector, and J. C. 
Brewington appointed Postmaster. For several 
years Wilbur Morehous has held the office. 

Near the " ninety mile tree," — a tree on the 
state line, between Indiana and Ohio, just ninety 
miles from the Ohio river, — Ebenezer Woodbridge 
now of Lee County, Illinois, settled 'in 1838, 
bringing his family two years after. Their cook- 
ing stove was the first in that part of the county, 
and created much curiosity among the neighbors. 


He was an earnest temperance man. When he 
wanted to raise his barn, out of many persons in- 
vited, but few came the first day, and it was hint- 
ed to him that it Avas because he would not 
furnish liquor. He indignantly mounted a stump 
and made a regular " stump " speech to his neigh- 
bors, saying that if his barn could not go up with- 
out whiskey, the logs might rot upon the ground. 
The next day his barn was raised. 

In 1861, Daniel Forner and Charles Joseph 
commenced the manufacture of crockery ware at 
Mr. Forner's residence, in Noble Township. They 
are still engaged in the business. 

Wayne Township was organized in September, 
1837. Most of the early history of this township 
has already been given. The iirst election was 
held on the third Saturday in September, 1837, 
Daniel Farber, Inspector. The first settler was 
Philip Brown, who built the first house (1832). 
The next was William Brockus, and the third 
James Morrison. Then came Obadiah Winters, 
the Highlander family, and H. H. Cuppy. The 
latter built the "Conner house" on the south side 
of the Big Salimonie, now owned by Colonel 
Shanks, in the fall of 1833. That house is cele- 
brated as the one in which the first Commission- 
ers' and Circuit Courts were held. 

In 1836 Cuppy brought some goods from Rich- 
mond and opened a store in that house, which 



was the second one in the county. He also built 
the first house in Portland, which was in 1837. 
It was a lonw, log structure, and stood on the cor- 
ner, since the Jay Inn. He moved his store into 
that house. The next house in town was the 
court house, built by Robert Huey. The next 
year Lewis S. Farber built a house, where D. L. 
Grow's tan-yard is now situated ; and James 
Simmons built one for D. W. McNeal on the cor- 
ner where Miller's building now stands. The 
first farm house was built by Dr. D. Milligan, on 
the corner south of Miller's buildinp;. The first 
regular tavern was kept by William Haines, who 
built what is known as " Hickory Hall " for that 
purpose — still standing. 

In 1839 Kathan B. Hawkins and William T. 
Sliull opened the second store in the place. The 
town was full of native trees then, and it is re- 
lated that hickory-nuts would often fall upon the 
log court house while court was in session. 

Dr. Jacob Bosworth moved from Massachusetts 
to Ohio in 1817. While passing through Darke 
County he found Jesse Gray, who urged him to 
go to Jay 'to look for land, which he did. He 
and his family arrived March 1st, 1836. He was 
the first physician in the county, and for many 
years his practice was extensive. In the summer 
of 1837 he opened a Sabbath School in the Wring- 
er cabin at Liber, which had then been used 



for a sngar-making house. It was the second 
school of that Jcind in the county. Afterward it 
was moved to his house southeast of Liber, where 
it was continued for nine years. 

John Smith built the next house in Liber in 
1836. It was on the farm so long the home of 
Deacon Jonathan Lowe, now owned and occupied 
by Jonathan R. Wells. Mr. Smith also built the 
" old log barn," still standing, and now owned by 
Mrs. Mary S. Montgomery, which was the subject 
of the following verses by R. S. Taylor, Esq. : 

There's a charm for me yet in the old log barn, 

So tottering, old and gray ; 
Where wildly I loved, long years ago, 

To romp on the new-made hay. 


For the merry old times that I sported there, 

The song that I sung in my play, 
Have an image and echo within my breast 

That never will fade away. 

There was gathered the fruit of the plenteous year, 

In garner and spacious mow ; 
And the laborers' shout of " Harvest Home," 

Is floating round me now. 


For the merry old times, &c. 

And here is the olden-time threshing floor, 

Where busily moved our feet ; 
To handle the hay, or the bearded sheaf, 

Or winnow the golden wheat. 


For the merry old times, &c. 

EEV. J. H. BABCOCK. * 169 

But now the old barn is forsaken and lone, 

The best of its days it has seen; 
Still, when it has fallen and mouldered away, 

Its memory will be green. 


For the merry old times, &c. 

They were set to music also composed by Mr. 
Taylor, and after being sung at an exhibition at 
Liber College, were published in the Minnehaha 
Glee Book. 

In the tummer of 1845 Rev. Joseph H. Bab- 
cock came to Jay County, residing first at Port- 
land, where he organized a Presbyterian Church 
November 29th, of nine members, consisting of 
J. H. Babcock, Eliza Babcock, Jacob Bosworth, 
I^ancy Bosworth, Josiah H. Topping, Hector 
Topping, Amaretta Topping, Joseph C. Haw- 
kins and Amanda Frazee. The meeting was held 
in the Court House. In 1847 he moved to J^ew 
Cory don, preaching in Portland and in the old 
Limberlost Church. He died at I^ew Corydon, 
March 15th, 1848, universally lamented. He was 
a favorite with all classes, adapting himself with 
ease to the society around him : a fluent speaker, 
and possessing a complete education as a lawyer 
as well as a minister, he was well calculated to 
be a leader in all the moral movements of the 
time, and especially to lift the Banner of the Cross 
in the heterogeneous society of a new country. 


The temperance reform, the Sabbath School and 
the common school received his active attention. 
He was a model preacher, a good citizen and a 
true-hearted Christian man. No death in Jay 
County has been so lamented by those who knew 
how to value such a man in the forming of new 
communities. " Though dead he yet speaketh" 
to those who knew him in his self-sacrilicing la- 
bors in this county. 

AVhen the Commissioners organized Pike 
Township, in 183Y, they gave it that name at the 
suggestion of J. C. Hawkins. Most of its early 
history has been given. The first settler was 
John J. Hawkins ; the next Thos. J. Shaylor, and 
the third Sarah Riddley. 

Jacob Sutton relates that one night, soon after 
he settled there, his dog became much alarmed. 
He saw in front of the house some animal, and 
shot at it while in the house. It proved to be a 
wolf, and the shot had broken its back. The ex- 
cited dog caught it and would not let go until he 
had dragged it into the house, where it was killed. 

The oldest settler, now living, in the west part 
of the township is Henry Harford. The first 
election was held at Jacob Sutton's, and Heniy 
"Welch, who lived on the farm now owned by 
John J. Adair, was elected Justice. David Gar- 
ringer has held that office the longest of any one 
in the township. The first school house built was 


on John Kidder's farm, and Miss Lncetta Kidder, 
now Mrs. Waldo, taught the first school, com- 
mencing July 1st, 1840. The first tavern was 
kept by Abraham C. Sutton, on his farm near 
Bluff Point. This village was surveyed in 1854 
by W. H. Montgomery, for L. J. Bell and I. N. 
Taylor. It was first called Iowa. December 
17th, 1840, the Post Ofiice was established there, 
and David Garringer appointed Postmaster. It 
was then called Yan, which name it retained un- 
1853, when it was changed to Bluff Point. 

Boundary City Post Office was established May 
11th, 1852, and Daniel Heaster appointed Post- 
master. He still retains that position, and has a 

The village of Antioch was surveyed in 1853. 
Amos Hall, C. H. Clark and David Frazee were 
the proprietors. Mr. Clark named it after Anti- 
och College. Peter Couldren kept the first store. 

The first sermon ever preached in Jay County 
was by Rev. Pobert Burns, a Methodist, at the 
Hawkins cabin, in the fall of 1832. His text was, 
" Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden and I will give you rest." 

Jeflerson Township was organized at the last 
meeting of the Commissioners in 1837. The first 
election was held at the house of Jacob H. San- 
ders, who was elected the first Justice, and John 
Nixon was chosen Constable. Peter Dailey was 


Inspector of the election. J. H. Sanders laid out 
New Mount Pleasant, and named it in honor of a 
Quaker meeting-house in Ohio of a similar name. 
WilUiam Ilite was the lirst settler in the town, 
and kept the lirst tavern. The grand jury found 
forty-two indictments against him at one time for 
selling liquor, all of which were sustained. It 
brought out the true manhood that was in him. 
He abandoned the business, and became a sober, 
highly respected citizen. John Bell built the 
second house in the village, and kept the first 
store. The first school in the township was taught 
by an Irishman named Thomas Athy, near the 
farm of William Finch, sen. 

Jackson Township was organized in March, 
1838. Prior to this it had been attached to Bear 
Creek Township. The first settler was Edward 
Buford. The first person who died in the town- 
ship was Aaron Rigby, in September, 1837, near 
the farm of Isaac Russell. There being no lum- 
ber, the cotfin was made of "puncheons,"* by 
Joshua Bond. Gillum Post Office was established 
January 8th, 1856, and George Fish appointed 
the first Postmaster. In 1857 Abel Lester opened 
an establishment for the manufacture of crockery 
ware. It was in operation only about two years. 

* The word " puncheon" is used in this yvovk in the pion- 
eer sense, which means a plank which is spUt out of a log, 
and hewed instead of being sawed. 


Silas S. Pingry was Justice in this township for 
seventeen years. He married two pairs of twin 
sisters out of the same family. The first name 
of each of the husbands was John. 

During a thaw in the winter of 1837-8, Mr. 
James Snow, father of Dr. B. B. Snow, then 
about sixty years old, who lived six miles north- 
west of Portland, being out of tobacco, of which 
he was a passionate lover, started to Camden on 
foot to procure some. Soon after leaving home 
the weather began to turn colder; but though 
thinly clad, he was sufficiently comfortable until 
his return, when it began to snow very rapidly, 
making him quite wet and hiding the trace he 
was following, except the blazes upon the trees. 
Soon the snow covered most of these, and he 
discovered he had lost the track entirely, which 
he tried in vain to regain. Finding that he was 
suffering from the cold despite all his exercise, he 
endeavored to retrace his steps to Camden. This 
he found very tedious work, and soon impossible, 
on account of the darkness. He now became se- 
riously alarmed for his safety ; wandered about, 
and called loudly for aid, but received no answer. 
By this time he was discouraged and exhausted. 
He had waded across runs and through slashes 
until his feet and lower extremities were very 
wet ; his clothing w^as freezing upon him, and he 
had eaten nothing since early in the morning. 


He was forced to choose between an effort to save 
his life bj exercising all night or submit to his 
fate ! Being drowsy, he was strong!}^ inclined to 
the latter course. Finally, he sought a clear, level 
place between two large trees, and there contin- 
ued walking and running from one to the other 
until morning. His family, supposing he was 
lost, procured the assistance of some neighbors, 
and went in search of him, at daylight. About 9 
o'clock in the forenoon they found him crawling 
on his back track and badly frozen. He was a 
long time recovering. 

Richland township was organized in May, 1838. 
It was named by Benjamin Manor. The first 
election was held at William Richardson's who 
lived where Laban Hickman now does, on the 
second Saturday in June, the same year, John 
Booth, Inspector. James Ewing was the first 
Justice. Matthew A. Smith held this office for 
fourteen years. Half Way Post-office was estab- 
lished September 19, 1853, and Samuel J. Cur- 
rent appointed Postmaster. Half Way Creek was 
so named from being halfway between Portland 
and Muncie, and, from this stream, the Post-office 
received its name. The village of Mount Yernon 
was laid out by W. H. Wade, and surveyed by 
John C. Bailey. Michael Coons, who settled in 
the township in 183Y< has killed several bears and 
over three hundred deer there. 


The first settlers in the vicinity of Dunkirk 
were Isaiah Sutton and William Shrack, who came 
in September, 1837. One day, while the men 
were absent, Mrs. Sutton saw a deer, and, though 
she had never tired a gun, she took careful aim 
and shot, killing the deer instantly. 

James S. Wilson was the first Postmaster at 
that office, which was established February 28 th, 

Green Township was organized in March, 1838. 
The first settler was T. J. Shay lor, the next Wil- 
liam Coffin. Samuel Kouth, William Bunch, 
Greenbury Coffin and Henry Delong were also 
early settlers. The Rev. G. C. Whiteman settled 
where he still hves, Oct. 22d, 1837. Mr. Routh 
and Christopher I. Timberlake were from Green 
County, Ohio, and named the township after that 
county. The first election was at Delong's, the 
first Monday in August, 1839. 

Rev. Wade Posey, who was then on the Win- 
chester Circuit of the Methodist Church, preached 
the first sermon in the township at Mr.Whiteman's. 
The first school was taught in the winter of 1845- 
-6, in a school house situated near James Whaley's. 
The township had no post office until May 22d, 
1862. when one was established called Green, and 
John Strieker appointed Postmaster. 

Knox was the last township organized, which 
was in March, 1839. A. C. Smith and Joseph 


Gaunt went to Portland to get the township or- 
i^anized. After hunting some time they found the 
Commissioners in session out in the woods, near 
the court house. The old township name of Sali- 
nionie had not been given to any of the new 
townships, and Jacob Bosworth, avIio was then one 
of the Commissioners, insisted that at least the last 
township should ha,ve that name. But Mr. Gaunt 
wanted it named after Knox County, Ohio, and 

John Brooks was the first settler. Brittan 
Beard, Joseph Gaunt, John Gaunt, Adam Zeigler, 
Abraham C. Smith and Joshua Bowers were 
among the early settlers. 

The first election was held at Gaunt's, on the 
first Monday in April, 1839, A. C. Smith, Inspec- 
tor. There were just seven votes cast, and six 
ofticers elected, as follows : Trustees, A. C. Smith, 
Michael Roland and Joseph Gaunt ; Justice, 
Michael Roland; Clerk, Cornelius Smith; Con- 
stable, Adam Zeigler. 

The first death in the township was that of Mrs. 
Jane Beard, wife of Brittan Beard. She died in 
the fall of 1839, and was the first person buried 
in the township cemeter3^ Cornelius Smith 
taught the first school in the winter of lS38-'89. 

The organization of Madison Township has 
been given. Henry Abel and Benjamin Gold- 
smith were the proprietors of Lancaster. It was 


surveyed by D. "W. MdSTeal. Salimonie Post 
Office was established in 1852, and G. W. Abel 
appointed Postmaster. He still retains that posi- 
tion. Jordan Post Office was established in 18 — , 
but it was then in Randolph County. For a few 
years it has been on the Jay side ot the county 
line. The village of New Pittsburg, like Salem, 
is on both sides of the line separating the two 

In the winter of 1835-6 William Martin open- 
ed a store near Abraham Lotz', which was the 
first in the county. 

One hindering difficulty in the development of 
the resources of the county has been the rage for 
hunting which most of the early settlers possessed. 
Instead of clearing a farm, only a small spot was 
generally opened on which to raise a patch of 
corn, and the time principally spent in hunting. 
It would have been much more profitably era- 
ployed in making wider aggressions upon the for- 
ests and thus adding new fields to the farm. 
During the first stages of the emigrant's life this 
hunting was an absolute necessity; but was often, 
from lono; habit and love of the excitement of the 
hunt, continued after the necessity liad passed 
away. The liberal prices paid for skins by the 
fur traders also encouraged the hunting, and the 
money thus distributed was for many years the 
chief dependence of the pioneer families in mak- 


ing purchases of mercliandise and grain, and in 
paying taxes and doctor bills. Cotfee, tobacco, 
muslin, and, we are sorry to say, in some neigh- 
borhoods whisky, were the staple articles of trade 
for the first few years. A boy once called at 
Theo. Wilson's store, in New Corydon, with one 
bushel of corn, half of which he left for tobacco, 
and the other half took to the mill, remarking that 
it was the last grain they had. As game became 
scarce in Jay and adjoining counties, hoop poles 
came to be the chief exporting product. Jay 
County hoop pole teams have been seen at Eaton 
and Camden in Preble County, Ohio, and that, 
too, before there was a turnpike on any part of the 



, The first organized religious and educational 
eflfort, in Jay County, was made by Rev. Isaac N. 
Taylor, He was, emphatically, the leading pion- 
eer in all systematic, efiectual labor in these move- 
ments. Occupying, as he did, so prominent a 
position in the county's early history, so thorough- 
ly identified with her best interests, any history 
of Jay County would be very incomplete without 
a considerable sketch of his life and labors in it. 

In October, 1838, he was sent by the American 
Home Missionary Society and Presbytery of 
Chilicothe, Ohio, to St. Mary's, Ohio, as a Mis- 
sionary to the new settlements in that region. 
Early in the summer of 1840 he received a vague 
verbal message to the effect that somebody, thirty 
or forty miles west of St. Mary's, wanted to see 

180 REV. I. N. TAYLOli, 

him. lie wrote to tliis unknown person a sealed 
letter, directing it " To any Presbyterian west or 
south-west of St. Mary's, within forty miles, greet- 
ing," and confided it "to any hunter going to the 
Wabash." He took it himself ten miles, to the 
extremity of squatter sovereignity habitation. 
West of that, to the Wabash, was an untouched 
wilderness of the most dismal character, yet that 
letter, thus committed to the wild, reached its 
providential destination, and was speedily answer- 
ed by Mr. Matthew P. Montgomery, who lived 
on the farm now owned by Peter Walter, of Wa- 
bash Township, urging him to come there, and 
telling him of a small community of Christian 
people in his neighborhood. Soon after, Mr. Tay- 
lor made his first visit to Indiana. From what is 
since Celina to New Corydon, there was then 
scarcely a sign of human existence, and the first 
farm south of the Wabash was that of Mr. David 
Adams, where he found the whole neighborhood 
assembled raising a double log barn. Of that 
event Mr. Taylor says : " The patriarch of the oc- 
casion, as he ever was till he died, was Father 
Reuben Montgomery. After a few salutations he 
led us on down the creek some three miles to the 
house of his son-in-law, Ii'aTowle, where, on Sat- 
urday night, our first religious meeting was held. 
The day following was a memorable Sabbath to 
those sheep in the wilderness — memorable for re- 


viving the sacred memories of the Sabbath, the 
sanctuaries of the past, and for kindling the hopes 
of a better future, when this wilderness might re- 
joice and blossom as the rose." 

Six weeks afterward, Mr. Taylor returned, 
preached for several days at Ira Towle's, some- 
times in the barn, and organized a Presbyterian 
church, of thirteen members, of whom Jacob Bos- 
worth, (though living twelve miles distant,) Harry 
E.eed and M. P. Montgomery were elected elders. 

In the afternoon, on the Sabbath, there was a 
meeting for the relation of personal Christian ex- 
perience. Most of the male members of that 
gathering have gone to their eternal home. No 
one can paint so true a picture of these men as 
Mr. Taylor, who writes thus : " Father Mont- 
gomery, brought into the Kingdom in advanced 
life, impressed me that common sense was his great 
excellence. His story of his conversion showed 
that the truth and spirit of Christ had seized upon 
this ruling power in his conversion, and had ever 
since made this trait the chief medium of keeping 
him from error and preserving his piety. A 
memorable morsel in his prayer on that occasion 
illustrated how child-like sympathy may rule in 
company with a masterly will. It was this : ' O, 
Lord, thou knowest there is a great work to be 
done here in Jay County, and we have none to 
look to but Thee.' He was a famous framer. 


Many houses and barns in .Jay will long be the 
remembrancers of his industry, though men, with 
noisier tool covered with board and nail his tirmly 
jointed workmanship. And so, I think, his strong 
minded counsels, though covered by noisier advo- 
vocates of moral and religious reform, will remain a 
part of the hidden frame-work of new society in 
Jay County. 

"Ira Towle's hesitating yet honest manner made 
me say of him, to myself: There is a man that 
minds his own aifairs and keeps his own secrets, 
and wishes all others to do the same. I found 
him so. Never obtrusive, he was ahvays in his 
place, doing, not proposing or discussing, his full 
share towards all the interests of society. In 
keeping with all else, he, dying without any im- 
mediate heirs, bequeathed most of his property to 
the cause of Home Missions, amounting to over 
two thousand dollars. 

"Harry Reed's account was unstudied and highly 
emotional. Some odd, blunt expression about 
God's handling him mighty rough, would make 
us smile, and the next minute we would find our- 
selves weeping with him that wept, while he was 
telling of the almighty love of Jesus. With him 
religion was an inwrought principle and law of 
life, that would always prevail over the transient 
errors of sudden impulse or hasty speech. I con- 
fided to him, more than any man in those days, 


M. p. MONTGOMERY. 183 

all my cares. His industry, integrity, zeal and 
tender sensibility made him a valuable exponent 
of those elementary lessons of piety and charity 
which it was my care to instill into the heart of 
society in those early days. He was, emphat- 
ically, a worker in the moral as in the natural 
wilderness, and in both his works do follow him. 

"M. P. Montgomery, a man of superior intellect 
and of views and aspirations wide and high, 
with both natural and acqnired gifts of speech, 
gave ns, in addition to his Christian evidences, 
the lively* impression that he was, all over, from 
the sole of his foot up, for more than six feet, to 
the crown of his masterly head, a Presbyterian. 
It was to be expected that such a man would hail 
with joy the hopeful begin'bing of better times. 
He deprecated the prevailing type of religion in 
the country, as contemptuous of solid knowledge, 
dignified forms, and practical correctness. He 
was chiefly instrumental in getting, at so early a 
date, the first meeting-house, the block house, 
Limberlost Chapel. Soon after the organization 
of the church, he attended, as elder, a meeting of 
the Presbytery, at New Carlisle, Ohio. It was 
the era of the great Washingtonian Temperance Re- 
form. One night there was a grand meeting. 
Several eminent speakers were present, among 
them the famous Dr. Hall, of overwhelming brass 
bugle eloquence. Mr. Montgomery having 

184 M. p. MONTGOMERY. 

learned that very many christian professors of that 
region were opposed to the Reform, delivered sucli 
a scathing philippic as entitled him to the lionship 
of the evening. He employed the bitter language 
of John the Baptist and of Christ resj)ecting the 
Jews suffering vile characters to enter the King- 
dom of God before them, neither entering them- 
selves nor suffering those that would to enter. 
He explained, expanded and applied the terms 
hypocrites, generation of vipers, etc., with resist- 
less force. Dr. Hall was so pleased that he invit- 
ed him home with him to Dayton, and sent him 
back to Jay with forty dollars for the completion of 
the little chapel. 

"His stay in the county was onl}- for a few years. 
Indeed his stay on earth was not long, for, having 
removed to the vicinity of Fort Wayne, he had 
scarcely fixed his family comfortably on a new 
farm, when he was called to another sphere," 

In 184:1 Ira Towle gave the land for a church 
site and cemetery. Logs were hewed on four 
sides and a house erected that year — the first 
church building in the county. 

The first temperance meeting in that part of 
the county were held in it, and, at one of these. 
Judge J. M. Haynes made the first public speech. 
The people who so long worshiped within its walls, 
abandoned it in 1862, occupying their new house 
at "Westchester. 



Though forsaken the rustic church is not for- 


The memory of its dear old walls is linked with 
the cherished remembrance of the many loved ones 
who sleep near it. As the first altar consecrated 
to God in the new county, its appearance is res- 
cued from oblivion for the eyes of futute genera- 
tions. The church organization is now Congre- 

Mr. Taylor accompanied Dr. Bosworth to Port- 
land, where the doctor announced him, on account 
of his youth, as a " Presbyterian boy preacher." 

180 EEV. I. N. TAYLOR. 

A large audience assembled at Portland, in the 
old court-house, "a log building, long, low and dis- 
mal," and there he preached his first sermon in 
that part of the county, taking for his text that 
first divine call after apostate man — " Adam, 
where art thou?" Several sermons followed, en- 
gaging the unwonted attention of the people for 
several days and nights. 

The statements and reasonings ofDr. Bosworth's 
" boy preacher " was the same he had insisted on 
among his neighbors since they had pitched their 
tents together in the wilderness. But he had 
longed to have these truths fastened on men's 
minds and consciences in a professional way, and 
his delight on this occasion was great. 

For about two years after his first entrance, 
Mr. Taylor made frequent visits in Jay, and, grad- 
ually, a desire sprang up within him to labor for 
the mental and moral welfare of the county. This 
was more natural, because, by reason of certain 
predispositions, he had cherished from boyhood 
the desire to help lay the foundations of society 
in a new country. During these visits his ac- 
quaintance was enlarged at ]^ew Corydon, Cam- 
den and in the Hawkins neighborhood, and his 
desire grew into a fixed intention to spend the 
vigor and strength of his life in this destitute and 
difiicult, but promising field for intellectual and re- 
ligious labor. 

EEV. I. N. TAYLOR. 187 

He moved into the county in February, 1843, 
and first occupied a cabin belonging to "William H. 
Montgomery, two miles east of Westchester. In 
addition to preaching to the flock he had gath- 
ered there, he preached in the Hawkins cabin for 
Father Philip Eusminger, then, f.s he still is, 
(though now in his ninetieth year,) the meek and 
venerable white-haired patriarch of that neigh- 
borhood. Mr. Taylor's veneration for "first 
things " and interest in pioneer experience was 
greatly gratified at Mrs. Hawkins'. The vigor- 
ous blood and daring nerve of "Old Kentuck" 
animated her frame as she would recount the 
thrilling scenes of their first year among the 
savage beasts and savage men that then walked 
curiously and stealthily around her rude earnest 
of a coming civilization. 

Then, on the Wabash, Mr. Taylor would 
preach for the neighbors in the cabin' of Robert 
Webster, where some of the most solemn and af- 
fecting scenes of his ministry were enacted. Here 
he was aided by the self-denying Missionary 
Pogue, who, then a student at Lane Seminary, 
Ohio, spent a three months' vacation in Jay 
County, and afterward went to the Sandwich 
Islands, without a wife, because Miss Elizabeth 
Webster, the intelligent and Christian housekeep- 
er in that cabin, had gone to her grave and her 
home in heaven. 


188 KEY. I. N. TAYLOR. 

In 1845 Mr. Taylor, desiring to attend theolog- 
ical lectures at Lane Seminar}', moved to Cin- 
cinnati. That movement he always regretted ; 
returned in two years and settled in Portland 
very early in the spring of 1847. For two years 
he was Agent of the American Sunday School 
Union, and he accomplislied a great woi*k in or- 
ganizing schools and awakening in the minds of 
the people an interest in that most useful and 
effective branch of Christian labor. While living 
in Portland he engaged in an unprofitable mer- 
cantile enterprise with Calvin D. Searl. Late in 
1850 he became Principal of the Jay County 
Seminary, which position he held for two years. 
During these years, looking forward to the founding 
of a school, he selected the knoll on the Salimonie 
by the spring as a suitable spot, and purchased the 
land of John Smith. The remainder of Mr. Tay- 
lor's life m Jay is inseparably connected with 
Liber College, and will appear in the following 



To build an institution of learning in some new 
region "where no man had laid a foundation," 
had long been a darling enterprise in the mind of 
I. N. Taylor. In many respects he was well 
fitted for the work. He greatly loved life in a 
new country. He has spent but a mere fragment 
of his mature life elsewhere than in the begin- 
nings of society. This region of tall forests and 
log-cabins, wide lire places and liberal chim- 
ney-corners, its germs of society planted with 
plain, genial, warm-hearted pioneers, was well 
suited to his tastes and talents. His early settle- 
ment here, extensive acquaintance and sympathy 
witli the people, great influence, unflagging en- 
ergy, and, under adverse circumstances, obstinate 
will, all aided in adapting him to the work he was 


about to commence. In autumn, 1842, in com- 
pany with Jacob Bosworth and Harry Reed, he 
iirst crossed, on fo_ot, the present site of Liber. 

" While these three men were sitting by the spring to 
which many scores now daily resort, the covenant of his boy- 
hood came vividly to the mind of the Missionary, then in his 
twenty-fifth year, and an impression sudden and overwhelm- 
ing as from the whisper or impress of a ministering angel, 
was settled on his |heart, that on this spot he should dwell 
and execute his covenant with God and a sainted brother."* 

]!Tothing, however, was done toward the enter- 
prise, then so dimly painted in the visions of the 
future, for ten years, except that Mr. Taylor ne- 
gotiated for the land. . When he moved uj)on the 
ground he called the place Salem. 

The first public meeting ever held to consider 
the subject of building a school there, assembled 
in the " old peeled-log meeting house," near by 
what was then known as the Salem Cemetery, 
February 5th, 1853. The persons present were 
Rev. I. ]N[. Taylor, Jonathan Lowe, Jacob Bos- 
worth, J. H. Topping, Obadiah Winters, Wilson 
Milligan, David Hays, George W. Templer, Wil- 
iam McCormick, Joseph C. Hawkins, John G. 
Spade, Augustus Bosworth and R. S. Taylor. 
Mr. Winters was chosen Chairman and Mr. Tay- 
lor Secretary. 

* Liber Lamp, September, 1858. 


" The day was bitterly cold ; the wind blew a heavy gale, 
and the snow drifted through the crevices of the cabin, so 
that not a spot could be found in the room where the Clerk 
could keep the paper dry. So unusually bitter was the cold 
storm that a large red-hot stove did not warm the ' peeled-log 
house.' "* 

I. 'N. Taylor proposed an institution to be called 
Salem Academy, and argued that "such an en- 
terprise would be more in harmony with the un- 
developed state of the country and the concep- 
tions of the people, as well as within their 
means. '^ Mr. Bosworth proposed a college, argu- 
ing that " no school of high grade conld be made 
without foreign aid, and that such assistance 
could be more readily obtained for a college." 
This proposition prevailed, and the school was 
named " Liber College," by suggestion of Mr. 
Taylor. After this the village took the same 
name. April 20th, 1853, a notice appeared in the 
Portland Journal giving notice of the first elec- 
tion of officers, and on the 3d of May the corpo- 
rators met and organized themselves into the 
" Liber College Joint Stock Company." Shares 
were placed at $20 each, and the payment of $100 
entitled the holder to a perpetual scholarship. At 
this meeting the following officers were elected, 
being the first officers of the corporation : Trus- 
tees, Jacob Bosworth, Wilson Milligan, Obadiah 

* Liber Lamp, October, 1858. 


Winters, "Wilbur Morelions, Ebenezer Wood- 
bridge and Robert Huey ; Treasurer, G. W. Tem- 
pler. On the same day the Board of Trustees 
held their first meeting and elected I. K Taylor 
President for four years. Afterward, A. Bos- 
worth was elected Clerk. During that summer 
the Board put forth a manifesto, from which the 
following are extracts : 

"Liber is a latin word of four meanings, which 
the school-boy sometimes expresses in the rhyme : 

> ' Liber is a child, 

And Liber is free ; 
Liber is a book, 
And the bark of a tree.' 

"The significance of the title may be expressed 
in a sentence. We established, on liberal prin- 
ciples, in a new woodland, an institution for the 
education of our children, in books of practical 
Science, Religion and Liberty. * * * 
Rarely was a College, or even a first rate High 
School, founded, furnished and finished in the 
time of one mortal generation. This we know, 
and are not crazed or gloomed. The growth of a 
good Institution is usually like that of an oak. As 
men in middle life and old age do not plant acorns 
expecting themselves to sit under the expanded 
and towering boughs of the embryo oak, so we 
are not oppressed with swollen fancies of speedy 



and easy maturity. We plant the acorn. It will 
germinate this very year. Henceforth onr child- 
ren will defend the sappling, root, bark and blos- 
som. But the broad, deep shade of the great tree 
we willingly consecrate to those generations who 
will live and learn over our graves." 

A college campus of six acres was donated to 
the company by I. N. Taylor and Jonathan Lowe. 

Early in this year, (1858,) the Board contracted 
with I. IST. Taylor to build a house, suitable for the 
preparatory classes, for one thousand two hundred 
dollars. The result was that in November of that 
year the house was ready to be occupied. 


In August the site itself was cleared of its nativ e 
beach trees and old logs. 


On the 5th of ISTovember, 1853 the school was 
opened; I. N. Taylor, President and Mrs. Julia 
A. Weber, Principal of the Primary Department. 

During the lirst term Deacon Jonathan Lowe 
proposed to place in school a negro boy, living 
with him, called George Lowe, but whose real 
name was George Hunter. TJiis displeased a 
number of the stock-holders, and they became di- 
vided on the question of admitting colored persons 
to the privileges of the school. At once the pre- 
vious harmony among the original founders was 
broken. The language of the Constitution of the 
College being that " the purpose of this Institu- 
tion is to furnish to any person whomsoever the 
facilities of a common and collegiate education," 
those stockholders opposed to the admission of 
colored persons ceased to co-operate in the man- 
agement of the College. Afterward (March 22, 
1855,) the stockholders voted to reimburse those 
who had paid stock, not understanding that ne- 
groes could be admitted to the school. The result 
of the withdrawal of these persons was the foun- 
ing of Farmers' Academy, of which more will be 
said hereafter. 

The first year the school opened with twenty 
scholars, forty-three being in attendance dur- 
ing the course of the year. The entire cost of 
teaching and agency during the first two years was 
only about one thousand one hundred and fifty 


dollars, during which time, for teaching the Pri- 
mary Department four months, Mrs. Weber re- 
ceived but twenty-seven dollars. Those were in- 
deed times of " small things." 

At the opening of the third year of the school 
Miss Sarah Jane Miller was the Primary teacher, 
which position she held for three years. The 
number of trustees was increased to twelve. Dur- 
ing the year I. N. Taylor resigned his office as 
President of the Board and J. 0. Hawkins was ap- 
pointed to the office. Two rows of rooms were 
built for self-boarding students, and several new 
residents came into the village and built houses. 
Nothing of especial interest occurred then until 
the fifth year, during which the teachers were 
as follows : President, I. N". Taylor, Principal 
Primary Department, Miss S. J. Miller, Assistants, 
K. S. Taylor, Pulaski Mills, Mattie Tyson, Ed- 
mund Lockett, "W. G. Montgomery and HattieA. 
Weber. The whole number of students during 
the year was one hundred and seventy-four. 

The commencement exercises at the close of 
that year were distinguished by the graduation of 
the first class, consisting of M. W. Diggs, Pulaski 
Mills and R. S. Taylor. Immediately after the 
latter received his diploma, he stepped forward 
with Miss Fanny W. Wright, and the newly- 
crowned Bachelor of Arts lost the first part of his 


The following is an extract from the peculiarly 
appropriate Baccalaureate Address of President 
Taylor : 


" In new countries there is as much native mind, of good 
order, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, as in old 
countries ; and, considering the degenerating influences of 
sumptuous and fashionable life in many places, there is even 
more. Uncouth men and women may become new settlers, 
but weak and cowardly men and women are not likely to 
brave the toils and dangers of pioneer life. Moreover, these 
toils and dangers invigorate the brain, and effectuate a 
strength of character which ease and luxury only hinder and 
prevent. Hence, the children of pioneers are more likely to 
exhibit that amount of healthy brain and active nervous or- 
ganization, which we call natural talent, than any other class 
whatever. It is my belief, after the observation of twenty 
years, that among the first and second purchasers of new ter- 
ritory, there is a higher order of vigorous mind than in any 
other condition of society. In old England there is a class — 
the real aristocracy of the kingdom — whose very aristocracy 
consists in superior physical and mental development. To 
this they are devoted. But in America there is no aristocra- 
cy but that of wealth and fashion, whose votaries, generation 
after generation, diminish in physical and mental power. It 
is left to the perils, privations and gigantic civilization con- 
flicts of the wilderness, to preserve a type of muscle and 
brain, undiminished in compass and vitality. But in such 
new regions as ours, this natural talent is covered up under 
the rubbish of mere neglect. The trees, and brush, and 
grass, and mud, are but the emblems of a more concealing 
intellectual and moral wilderness, in which the ver}^ germs of 
genius are buried from the world. 


" Nothing but the broad and bright glare of High School 
and College light, will ever reveal these specimens of mental 
riches, even to the consciousness of the gifted sons and 
daughters of the forest. For, the drudgeries of pioneer life, 
the paucity of books, the inefficiency of common schools, the 
limitation of travel and conversation, the everlasting staying 
at home, the absence of all sight of great men and great 
things, the weakness of most professional efforts in the sick 
room, at the bar and in the sacred desk, the raillery of the po- 
litical platform, — all these conspire to show us not only the 
want of adequate caiises, but the existence of hindering 
causes, respecting the elicitation of true talent and genius. 
Nothing short of an actual experiment, of advancing scien- 
tific and literary learning, will draw from their retreats the 
best specimens of mind. But this will ; it will do it in any 
new country, and do it effectually. Many a brain of fine 
compass and vigorous pulse, throbbing under the compres- 
sure of miserable common school facilities, aches for a larger 
surrounding, and turns to the young College, like steel to the 
magnet, the very day the opportunity is given to gratify the 
high impulsion. 

" Generally, the circumstances of new settlers, for many 
years, do not suffer them to send their sons and daughters 
abroad, to the good Institutions of other places. And be- 
sides, there is a natural, and not much unreasonable reluct- 
ance, on the part of our youth, to go suddenly from the rude 
paths of new-land life to the gorgeous highways of refine- 

" In view of all this, it is simply certain that hundreds of 
the finest minds of the section, scattered about in all our new 
regions, must forever remain lost to the world and to them- 
selves, without the revealing presence and vivifymg power of 
the Home College. 

" But plant the College : open out to view the hitherto un- 
known beauties of Literature and grandeurs of Science ; fur- 
nish the facilities to home-born intellect, to unfold itself to 

198 R. S. TAYLOR, 

kindred and to country ; and while yon thus quicken the 
general pulse of society, you set on fire the best types of 
youthful mind, and dissolving the bonds that would other- 
wise have forever bound them to mammon and stupid world- 
liness, you redeem them to the glorious freedom and power 
of knowledge. With joy they hasten to the founts of truth, 
and drinking a little at first, then more and more, thej"^ rise to 
higher views of life and duty, and doom ; and vow, at the altar 
of truth, to spend their whole lives in helping through the 
earth the triumphs of wisdom. What a redemption ! No 
tongue can tell what an amount of personal joys and public 
influence are thus secured to societ}' by the Home College. 

" By the redemption of buried intellect, then, O heart of 
our country, cherish thy own Home College." 

Rev. M. W. Diggs is now pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church at ,Pisgah, Mercer Connty, 
Ohio, Pulaski Mills has given his time chieflj 
to teaching, since his "graduation, and^^ in June, 
1864, was appointed by the County Commission- 
ers, School Examiner of Jay County for three 

E. S. Taylor studied law with L. M. Ninde, at 
Fort Wayne, and j^is now partner in the law firm 
of Kinde & Taylor, He has always given much 
attention to music, and has acquired considerable 
well-deserved note as a musical composer. For 
several years before he graduated, the words and 
music for the College exhibitions were, most of 
them, of Ills composition. Many of his pieces 
have found their w^ay into the later musical pub- 
lications, while others have been issued in sheet 

K. S. TAYLOR, 199 

form. That toucliingly patriotic piece, " Oh, 
Wrap the Flag around me, boys," which has a 
national reputation, is of his composing. His 
law-partner is also a Jay Countian. L. M. I^inde, 
Esq., was raised on his father's farm near Cam- 
den, graduated at Farmers' College, near Cincin- 
nati, and has since been a successful • lawyer at 
Fort Wayne. 

In 1855 the Lib6r Glee Club was formed, of 
which R. S. Taylor was chorister. In the sum- 
mer of 1856 it gave concerts at different places, 
which were the first ever given in the county. 

During the summer session of 1857, Pulaski 
Mills was Principal of Liber College. For the 
year 1858-9, Miss Jane A. Montgomery was 
Principal of the Primary Department. 

In March, 1857 Yynul Arnett was chosen Pres- 
ident of the Board, in the room of J. C. Hawkins, 
resigned, which position he held for two years. 

With the close of the sixth year of the Institu- 
tion, President Taylor closed his official connec- 
tion with it, and, in September, 1859, moved to 
Illinois. For a paragraph, that he may not be 
misunderstood, the author must speak plainly. 

Thus ended Mr. Taylor's fourteen years in Jay 
County. During all this time he devoted his 
great energies and talents to the intellectual and 
moral interests of her people. Unambitious of 
wealth or fame, he gave his time and means un- 

200 REV. I. N. TAYLOR. 

reservedly to pusli forward the enterprises in which 
lie was engaged. Especially is this true of his 
labors in converting the wilderness, on the Little 
Salinionie, into the village of Liber, and building 
there a school, at which hundreds of Jay County 
youths, otherwise ignorant and uninfluential, have 
tasted the higher branches of knowledge. 

Many of these youths are now the teachers of 
the county, many others teach elsewherC, and still 
others are filling various important positions in 
society. "With small means, great obstacles and 
many other discouragements, he, nevertheless, 
accomplished a great v/ork. But his usefulness 
was but beginning, had his course not been such, 
before his departure and since, as to deeply grieve 
and mortify his many former friends, and cripple 
his usefulness. 

He was a graduate of Athens College, Ohio, 
possessed a clear, strong mind, and profound 
knowledge of human nature. This attracted to 
him many warm friends, and gave him, for many 
years, great influence. His sermons were char- 
acterized by profoundness of thought and beauty 
of expression, but were long, and rather quietly 
delivered. He now resides in Nebraska, and is a 
survej^or on the Pacific Eailroad. 

Accompanying some statements of his early life 
in Jay, which have been substantially embodied 
in this work, President Taylor sent the following 

KEV, I. N. TAYLOR. 201 

note. Thoiigli intended to be private, no harm 
can result, or wrong be done, in giving it here, as 
a farewell glimpse of the workings of that mind 
which planned and hoped so much for the future 
welfare of Jay County. It cannot fail to awaken 
mingled emotions in the minds of his former 
numerous friends in this region. 

^Nashville, Illinois, New Year's, 1863. 
Mr. M. "W. Montgomery : 

Dear Sir : I have spent my New Year's in preparing the 
rough sketch contained on these leaves. With much diffi- 
culty I compose my shattered nerves to write auytliing that 
brings up the events that so interested me in Jay — that dear 
scene of all my effective existence, and where my heart yet 
lingers in imperishable longings, but from which I am sun- 
dered forever * * * * 

"Wishing you much pleasure and success in your good 
work, I remain, Yours, very truly, 

I. N. Taylor. 

In 1859 the Board of Trustees invited Rev. 
Ebenezer Tucker, of Jo Daviess County, Illinois, 
to become President of the College. He accepted, 
and moved to Liber that year. He has since 
been constantly engaged in the college, preparing 
scores of young men and women to be teachers of 
common and graded schools. He was educated 
at Whitesboro, Kew York and Oberlin College. 
Prior to his residence in Illinois, he was, for eight 
years, Principal of the Union School, at Spartans- 
burg, Indiana. 


During the first term of the college year of 
1859-60, Elihu H. Yotaw, now a student at 
Wheaton College, Illinois, was the Principal. 
Since that time the Principals of the Primary 
Department have been Miss Edith S. Bailiff, of 
Fulton, Ohio, Miss Bell A. Johnston, now 
Mrs. G. W. Loofbourrow, and Miss Helen 
M. Johnston, of Bell Centre, Ohio. 

The Presbyterian church in Portland divided 
in 1854, and the seceding members organized a 
Congregational church -at Liber. 

The first Musical Institute held in the county 
was at Liber, in December, 1863, by W. S. Mont- 
gomery, and M. Z. Tinker, of Terre Haute, In- 

Concerning the Liber Spring, now owned by 
D. 0. Baker, Esq., the following letter em- 
braces all that need be said. It was writ- 
ten without the faintest idea of its appearing here, 
and is, consequently, as fresh and lively as the 
limpid waters that still rise from that dearly loved 
fountain under the hill. It is inserted without the 
knowledge of the writer, for who is so well pre- 
pared to speak of that Spring as he who, for more 
than ten years, made it daily visits ? 

Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 18tli, 1864. 
Dear Friend M. : After" as much reflection as I can 
readily give to any one subject, with the mercury at 95°, 
I can think of nothing that I would particularly wish to have 


remembered in your history, that you would be at all likely 
to omit, except the old spring, at Liber. I would give the 
price of two copies of your history for one good swig of its 
clear, cold water, now. I speak of it, fearing that since the 
town has been built up, with a score of wells in its immediate 
neighborhood, and since some of the old settlers have passed 
away, some to other scenes of earthly toil, and some to fields 
where yet purer water flows, and since the war has opened 
its ghastly fountains, to the flowing of which all our hearts 
contribute in some degree, the old spring may have lost some 
of its ancient prestige. But it ought not to be forgotten ; it 
•was once famous in its way, and the very object of your book 
is to i)erpetuate the memory of those humble things that 
made up the life of the pioneers of Jay County. When I first 
knew it, that Spring was noted for miles around. The coun- 
try was thinly settled, and good wells were rare, and good 
springs still more so. 

The numerous veins that oozed through the banlvs of the 
Salimouie, and painted their way to the water's edge with a 
slimy green and yellow glazing, seemed almost uniformly, 
judging from taste and odor, to have come from some locality 
where sulphur much abounded. A pure, clear, cold spring 
as this was, was rarely found, and was highly prized. There 
was no house very near it ; — there had been one years before 
on the hill just above, but it was then a mere heap of rotten 
logs. It may have been a dwelling house, or only a hunter's 
lodge. I remember picking up some pieces of broken china 
near it. The painted flowers on them were as bright and 
fresh as new. The cheeks of the girl who washed them must 
have long since lost their roses. The old spring was then a 
mere hole in the ground ; it had not even the usual protection 
of a sycamore gum. There was a well-worn path leading to 
it, into which several others converged, and which was much 
traveled by those who lived up the Salimonie, on their way 
to and from the county seat. There was at one time a gourd 
supplied to it by some public-spirited person, and kept hanar- 


ing on a bush that overhung the spring, for the accommoda- 
tion of thirsty passers-by ; but usually there were no such 
luxurious superfluities to be had : those who sought refresh- 
ment there had to get upon their hands and knees, like the 
cattle and deer, which were also equally welcome to its 

But the circumstance most interesting to my mind of any 
connected with the old spring, and one which shows what 
little things determine the course of human affairs, is that its 
existence there determined the location of " Liber College" 
where it is. I well remember the day when my father and 
mother first went out to examine the land on which the Col- 
lege now stands, and with what glowing enthusiasm they 
spoke, when they came back, of the " pure, cold spring" that 
was there. There were a good many difficulties in the way 
of getting the land : the price asked was considered high, 
and the title was in the hands of several persons, so that it 
took many conveyances and considerable trouble and outlay 
to secure it ; and in the long and persevering eflForts that re- 
sulted in its purchase, I know that the spring was a leading 
motive. If you will examine the original " manifesto" of the 
College you will fiind the spring prominently and honorably 
referred to. 

I do request that if you have not alreadj' done so, and j'our 
book is not now in type, you will make some mention of the 
" old spring." 

Yours truly, 




The first meeting to consider the subject of 
founding this school was held at the house of G. 
W. Templer, then living at College Corner, in the 
spring of 1854. Another meeting was afterward 
held at David O. Whipple's. The members of 
the first Board of Trustees were Jacob Bosworth, 
President; Obadiah "Winters, G. W. Templer, 
James Templer, J. G. Spade, John J. Adair, Geo. 
Blazer, John Reed, Lewis J. Bell, Augustus Bos- 

James Templer, now a resident of Indianapolis, 
donated the site for the building, and Jacob Bos- 
worth built the house — a frame, twenty-five by 
fifty-six feet, and two stories high — for $900. 

Mr. C. C. Chamberlain, a graduate of Antioch 
College, taught for the first six months, commen- 
cing December 10th, 1854, Miss Katurah "Winters 



being Principal of the Primary Department. The 
first term of the second ^-ear was tauglit by Mr. 
John Phipps ; the rest of that year Mr. Robert 
Milliken ^vas the Principal, Miss Lytlia Sheller 
being the lady Assistant. The third year Kev. 
J. D, Parker and Miss M. C. Hall were the teach- 
ers. In 1857 N. G. BuflP, Esq., was the Principal, 
and at diftcrent times during that year Miesee 
Katnrah Winters, Rachel Jackson and Mary Bos- 
worth were Assistants. 


On the 5th of July, 1858, the school was sold 
to the Northern Indiana Conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and Rev. W. F. Hemen- 


way became Principal, and Mrs. Hemenway, As- 
sistant, which position they held for two years. 
There was then no school until in the spring of 
1864, when Rev. J. E. Erwin became the Princi- 
pal, and is the present incumbent. The Academy 
is located in one of the most beautiful groves that 
can be seen any where. 

The last Post Ofiipe (College Corner) established 
in the county, was near this place, on May 30th, 
1862. Jonas Votaw was the first Postmaster ; — 
Jacob Bosworth is the present one. 

In June, 1847, the County Commissioners con- 
tracted with Jacob Bosworth to build the " Jay 
County Seminary." It was not finished until 
1848. The first term of school in it was taught 
by Mr. TFiomas T. Loomis. For the year 1850 
Mr. Calvin J. Parker was the Principal, and for 
the two following years Rev. I. N, Taylor occupied 
that position, which was the last school taught in 
it. In 1853 the county sold the building to Elias 
Bromagem, who occupied it for several years, 
when it was forfeited to the county, who in 1860 
resold it to B. W. Hawkins, who has since made 
it his residence. 

The cold winter of 1842 and '43 will long be 
remembered by the early settlers of Jay and the 
adjoining counties. On the 12th of November, 
1842, the ground was covered by a fall of snow, 
which did not entirely leave until April, 1843. 


After the 8th of January the whole country was 
one vast field of ice, caused by rain which fell 
heavily and froze, forming a thick sleety ice. On 
this snow fell nearly afoot in depth, and though it 
was partly thawed by rain, yet frost and snow 
again followed. The sleet prevented the hogs 
getting nuts and roots, or the wild turkeys from 
stirring the leaves ; and long before spring the 
scanty provision made by the settlers for horses 
and cattle was gone, and great numbers of cattle 
perished. S»me farmers were able to keep 
most of their stock by cutting down elm, 
linden, and other soft-wood trees, and letting 
the stock take the brush. This, with a supply of 
salt and a small piece of salt fat pork to a cow 
per day, took them through ! The hogs fared still 
worse : thousands perished from actual starvation. 
Some men saved some of their hogs by killing 
the weaker ones and feeding them to the stronger. 
Deer became so poor they were easily taken, and 
men and wolves slew them in great numbers. 

Another trying time for the settlers of Jay 
County was the rainy summer of 1844. All the 
streams overflowed the low lands many times 
during the season. The farmers found it impos- 
sible to plow or })hint, and no crop was raised. 
Large numbers of families left their cabins and 
clearings, and moved back to the older settlements, 
most of whom never returned. Had it been pos- 


sible to have sold property, the county would have 
been almost depopulated. 

Among the pioneers of Jay was an oddity call- 
ed Johnny Appleseed. His proper name was 
John Chapman. Manj^ years ago he brought 
from Central Ohio, two bushels of apple-seed, on 
the back of an ox, and cleared small patches of 
ground on the headwaters of the Loraraie, An- 
glaise, St. Mary's and Wabash rivers, besides va- 
rious other places, and planted apple-seeds. In 
the early settlement of this county, he was wan- 
dering about, from one nursery to another, camp- 
ing wherever night overtook him, selling trees. 
He had a nursery on the Wabash one mile east of 
]^ew Cory don. He never carried a gun or wore 
a sound piece of clothing, though he possessed 
considerable property ; never slept in a bed, or 
ate at a table ; had no place he called home ; was 
a devoted Swedenborgian in religion, and died 
near Fort Wayne in 1845. He had once been a 
fine business man, but an accident had caused a 
partial derangement of his mind. The trees from 
his nurseries are bearing fruit in a dozen different 
counties in Indiana, and thousands are enjoying 
the fruit who never saw or heard of Johnny Ap- 

The first newspaper ever published in Jay 
County was The Portland Journal^ issued in the 
summer of 1852, by Mr. James M. Bromagen, 


editor and proprietor. In politics it was neutral. 
The very first sheet struck from the press was 
carried away in triumph by D. W. MciSTeal. The 
printing office was in the second story of what is 
now the Franklin House. In about two years it 
was purchased by John T. Hoover, who contin- 
ued its publication, under many difficulties, until 
some time in the winter of 185G-'7, when it was 
discontinued. Its circulation was about three 
hundred copies. No complete file of it is in 

On the 20th of February, 1856, Eev. I. N". Tay- 
lor issued, at Liber, The Liber Lamjp, a small, 
four-column weekly paper, devoted to the general 
interests of the College. It was first printed in 
the basement of the College, and had about four 
hundred subscribers. Its emblematical head was 
"Science, Religion, Liberty," and its motto, 
" Semper Liber, Ifeuter Nunquam.'''' In this form 
it passed throiigh the first volume. The second 
volume, which closed its career, was published by 
E. S. and W". J. Taylor, and the size reduced to a 
sheet two columns wide and just seven inches 
long, issued monthly. 

In ISTovember, 1856, Mr. William McCormick 
started The Jay County Democrat. In May, 
1858, Mr. George H. Moore became a partner in 
the ownership of the paper. It had about three 
hundred subscribers, and was discontinued Octo- 
ber 2Cth, 1850. 


The Jay County Repitblican was first issued 
in March, 1858, by Hon. J. P. C. Shanks and L. 
M. Morrison. In a short time Mr. Morrison sold 
to William S. Jones, and on the 13tli of April, 

1859, the last number was issued. 

The Jay Torch-Light was first issued Septem- 
ber 8tli, 1859, by M. W. Montgomery. The 
printing office was first in one room of the then 
abandoned old brick Court House ; but fearing 
the crazy old building would tumble down and 
extingnlsh the lights the office was moved to Mil- 
ler's building. The first few weeks it had three 
hundred subscribers, but before the close of the 
volume the number had increased to five 
hundred and seventy-five. On the 18th of 
July, 1861, R. C. Harper became one of the 
proprietors, but re-sold to Mr. Montgomery 
April 17th, 1863. At the close of the third vol- 
ume Mr. Montgomery sold the paper to Mr. P. S. 
Loof bourrow, who is the present proprietor. 

The Jay County Times was issued August 1st, 

1860, by George H. Moore, and discontinued in 
the following spring. 

It is not certainly known whether The Jay 
County Clipper ever reached an actual existence 
or not. However, one number made its appear- 
ance in December, 1862, issued by Jacob Sim- 
mons, and three or four more nuirfbers followed 
semi-oceasionally during the winter, in one of 


which it was hinted that the establishment would 
freeze out if some one did not bring some wood — 
and the paper has not been seen since. 

On the 8th of October, 1863, Mr. C. C. Morical 
commenced the publication of The Democratic 
Review^ but in a few weeks abandoned it, since 
which time it has been conducted by Dr. T.J. 
Lafollet. It has about six hundred subscribers. 

In May, 1862, the County Commissioners 
opened sealed bids for building a new jail. The 
bids were as follows : 

Augustus Boswortli, $4,200 

M. A. Reeder, Winchester, 4,000 

Crowell, Conkel and Denney, 3,960 

W. H. and M. W. Montgomery, 2,237 

The latter firm having bidden |1,6C3 lower 
than the others, was awarded the contract. They 
completed the building by the following Decem- 
ber. The iron cells were made and put up by 
Macey, Kankin & Co., of Cincinnati. The total 
cost of the jail was $6,600. 

In 1861, Jonas Yotaw, Esq., was appointed a 
member of the Board of Directors for the JS'orth- 
ern Indiana State's Prison, which position he held 
for two years. 

Jay County has, as yet, no completed railroad. 
Four tracks, passing through the county, are pro- 
jected ; on three of them much grading has been 
done. The map shows their names and routes. 


In 1864 the County Commissioners purchased 
John Williams' farm for four thousand dollars for 
the use of the paupers of the county. 

Jay County still has its hunters. Quite a com- 
pany of old hunters are in the habit of making 
yearly visits to Paulding County, Ohio, for the 
purpose of hunting. John Williams, probably, 
goes more frequently than others. He is a hunter 
of considerable note, though he did not settle in 
the county in those early days when the hunters 
had undisputed possession of the territory. In the 
winter of 1863-4, he and O. McKinstry killed 
twenty-one deer. 

The census of Jay County was taken, for 1840, 
by Morrison Rulon. for 1850 by J . M. Haynes and 
K B. -Hawkins, for 1860, by J. K Templer and 
Ira Denney. 

The population, in 1840, was not taken by 
townships, and is reported in total at 3,863. Dar- 
ing that year 16,018 pounds of maple sugar were 
made in the county. 


Richland, • 349 

Knox, 271 

Penn, 710 

Jefferson, 717 

Green, 363 

Jackson, 575 

Pike, 786 




Wayne, , 705 

Bear Creek, , 737 

Madison, 645 

Noble, 745 

Wabasb, 345 

Total, 7,047 











Bear Creek, 






Bom in the United States,. . . . 
Born in Foreign Countries,. . . 






















On the night of the 4th of February, 1862, the 
Treasury of Jay County was robbed of four 
thousand six hundred doUars, of which one hundred 
belonged to Doctor E. R. Sheffield, and about two 
hundred dollars to B. W. Hawkins. County 


Treasurer, Joseph P. Winters, Sheriff, J. E. Lotz, 
and Auditor, W. G. Suttou, immediately set to 
work to ferret out the perpetrators. They man- 
aged, with great ingenuity and skill, spending 
most of their time and employing some profes- 
sional detectives. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
William Brandon, of Union City, who was for 
many years a merchant in Portland, and John 
Barker, Samuel P. Johns and William Blackburn, 
of Dayton, were arrested, brought before Judge J. 
M. Haynes, and held to bail in the sum.'of $12,000 
each. The county having no efficient jail at the 
time. Barker was taken to Muncie, Johns and 
Blackburn to Winchester, and Brandon was kept 
in Portland at the Jay Inn, and guarded by the 
citizens. In a few days Blackburn escaped. The 
prisoners desired a change of venue, and were 
sent to Muncie, Indiana, where, on the 30th of 
April, 1862, the trial opened. The attorneys for 
the State were Hon. J. M. Haynes, J. IS". Templer, 
and J. R. Perdieu, of Portland, Hon. Walter 
March, of Muncie, Judge Jer. Smith, of Winches- 
ter, and J. F. Bowden, of Bloomfield. Attor- 
neys for the defendants were Hon. F. E. Cuppy, 
Dayton, Hon. David Kilgore and William Broth- 
erton, Muncie, Judge James Brown and John J. 
Cheney, of Winchester. 

Barker was tried first. William Brandon 
turned State's evidence, was released from trial, 


and became the cliief witness for the prosecution. 
The testimony which- was phonographically re- 
ported for The Jay Toi^ch-Light, by M. W. Mont- 
gomery, developed the following facts : 

Johns planned the robbery, Barker and Black- 
burn did the robbing, and Brandon piloted them. 
They got the keys of the treasurer's office and safe 
from Mr. Winter's house. Barker's trial lasted 
live days and resulted in his conviction, and a 
sentence of three year's imprisonment. Johns' 
trial also lasted five days, and he was sentenced to 
four years in the penitentiary. 

Barker and Johns were immediately taken to 
the Michigan City penitentiary. John's case was 
taken to the Supreme Court, on the point that, 
though one of the accomplices in the larceqij^, he 
was not, at any time, in the State of Indiana, and, 
therefore, could not be tried in this State. The 
Supreme Court sustained this view — a decision 
which, though perhaps constitutional, is'certainly 
a very dangerous one — and in a few months he 
was released. 

In May, 1862, Blackburn was again caught and 
confined in the Muncie Jail, fi'ofn which he soon 
escaped. He was, however, retaken in a few 
months and placed in the new jail at Portland. 
From this he also escaped by sawing oif the iron 
bars in the windows. He was now retaken the 
third time and tried at Winchester in September, 


1863, and sent to the penitentiary for seven 
years — just half long enough. Thus, by the most 
skillfully-planned and well-executed strategy, and 
praiseworthy perseverance on the part of the 
county officers and the attorneys of Portland, the 
perpetrators of the greatest robbery ever commit- 
ted in the county were brought to trial and con- 
victed. The county never recovered any of the 
lost money, and expended nearly ^2,000 more in 
the catching and prosecution of the thieves. , 

For several years a lawsuit, resulting from a 
horse-trade, had been in progress between Mr. 
Elias Bromagem and Samuel Emery, a man of 
bad character. During this time some one shot 
at and slightly wounded Mr. Bromagem, who 
then lived near Hill Grove, Ohio, and Emery was 
accused of the crime. In May, 1862, William 
Bromagen being at home from the army, on fur- 
lough, met Emery on the street in Portland, and 
after some words, Bromagem drew a revolver and 
tired three shots at Emery, all of which took ef- 
fect — one in the left arm, and two entering his 
back, passed through his body. He ran through 
K. Kirschbaum's store and up stairs in Miller's 
building, and while endeavoring to shoot Broma- 
gem from the window, fell and rolled down 
stairs out into the street. He died May 31st, 
1862. Bromagem immediately returned to the 


A distinguished historian has said, " Blessed is 
the nation whose annals are tiresome." Those 
pages of a nation's history are most interesting 
which record events that caused the nation to 
weep and bleed — when the ship of State has been 
convulsed bj mutinies or endangered by raging 
storms, or the attacks of enemies. But when she 
sails quietly, upon smooth seas, her crew loyal, 
her flag honored in every port, the pages of her 
history grow tedious. The historian delineates 
not the peaceful, prosperous life of the nation, but 
lingers about those great crises in her history, 
from which she rises to a more glorious renown, 
or falls into the pit of ruin. The history of Jay 
County, likewise, decreases in interest as we re- 
cede from those trials and incidents which cluster 
around her early settlement, and enter upon the 
prosperous quarter of a century which followed 
her organization in 1836. During these years 
her progress, though not rapid^ has been steady 
and healthful. The long delay in the completion 
of the railroads contemplated through her bor- 
ders, has greatly hindered the accumulation of 
wealth and development of her resources. There 
are few events in these years prominent above the 
monotonous routine of civilized life. How gladly 
would we drop our record here : 

■ " But there's a divinity that shapes our ends," 


and the next chapter must recite the arousing of 
the people of Jay County from their peaceful pur- 
suits, to participate in the great struggle for na- 
tional life. 



The attack of the rebels upon Fort Sumter — in- 
augurating the most gigantic contest the world 
has ever seen — and President Lincoln's procla- 
mation of April 14th, 1861, calling for seventj- 
five thousand volunteers to put down the rebel- 
lion, was received by the people of Jay County 
with one mind. Traitors had appealed from the 
peaceful court of the ballot-box, to the bloody ar- 
bitrament of the sword and bullet, and were ruth- 
lessly waging war upon the nation. The people 
saw no way to preserve the honor and institu- 
tutions of the country but to crush the rebellion 
by force of arms. The contest soon assumed 
proportions so vast as to astonish the world. Yet 


they did not swerve from their loyalty, and gave 
to the authorities a hearty suppoi t. This unanim- 
ity of sentiment was illustrated at the fall election 
in 1861. Political parties hushed their bickerings 
on former disputed questions, and patriotically di- 
vided candidates and all voted one ticket. Since 
the first year of the war this bright example has 
not been followed. Parties, and their accompa- 
nying strifes, mar the unity of the people in sup- 
port of the holy struggle which has called forth to 
the battle-field nearly one thousand of her patri- 
otic sons. 

Being distant from railroads and daily papers, 
the people of the county did not so early awaken 
to the realities of the war as those centres which 
more quickly felt the heart-throb bin gs of the 
wounded and bleeding country. For this reason 
no full company was raised for the three months' 
service ; but many went and entered companies 
forming in other counties. 

The first citizen of Jay Connty to volunteer 
was Charles E. Bennett. He was a young 
man, and student at Liber College. When he 
read the call for troops he told President Tucker 
that he was going. He went to Winchester, 
joined a company there, but was rejected. But, 
determined to serve his country, he went to Indi- 
anapolis, joined company C, 8th Indiana regiment, 
and by hiding his glasses for his near-sightedness, 


was accepted. He served his time out, and was 
discharged. In 18G2, when the rallying cry was, 

' '■ We arc coming-, Father Abraham, 
Six hundred thousand more," 

he again enlisted in compan}' F, T5th regiment 
Indiana volunteers, and this time gave his life for 
his country. He died of disease while the compa- 
ny was at Castillian Springs, Tennessee, about the 
1st of December, 1862. He was a kind-hearted, 
honest young man, and had been raised a Quaker. 

The first effort made to raise a whole company 
in Jay County, for the war was in July, 1861. 
Quite a number from different parts of the county 
had already gone — hastening, at the first clash of 
arms, to the scene of conflict. Meetings were 
held at several places in the county, at which 
Judge J. M. Haynes, J. N. Templer and others 
addressed the people. But at first volunteers 
were slowly obtained, because the people had not 
yet become warriors, and, beside, it was then con- 
sidered by many as preposterous to think of rais- 
ing a whole company in the county. But after 
the first thirty men were obtained no more difii- 
culty was experienced. 

Those most actively engaged in enlisting the 
company were Messrs. C. H. Clark, S. L. Wilson 
and Nimrod Headington. On the 6th of August 
they were ordered to report at Indianapolis ai 


once. Messengers were dispatched to all parts of 
the county to notify the members of the compa- 
ny. It was a very busy season ; but the mem- 
bers of this company held their country's call 
paramount to every other interest. The unmeas- 
ured calico was left upon the counter ; the plow 
remained in the furrow, and the scythe was left 
to rust in the unmown meadow. The blessed 
implements of peaceful industry were thrown 
aside for the musket and sword. All hearts were 
more than ever turned toward 'the war, and es- 
pecially the brave boys who were hurrying into 
the conflict. On the morning of August 9th a 
great crowd of citizens assembled in Portland to 
bid farewell to the first company Jay County sent 
to the war for the Union. It was a trying hour 
to the un warlike people of Jay. They had been 
reared to love the arts of Peace ; but they loved 
their country more, and now began to lay their 
sons by hundreds upon her altar. 

The parting scenes were thus sketched at the 
time by Tlie Jay Torch-Light, more vividly than 
they can be at this distant date : 

" Early on Friday morning the ' reveille ' summoned the 
soldiers together at Camp Ross, and a march around town 
was the order. This the boys performed with the greatest 
enthusiasm. They marched in front of each house where 
any of them had been boarding, and gave them hearty cheers. 
By this time the people from all i^arts of the county began to 
assemble, to witness the departure of the volunteers and bid 
them farewell. 


" The town was soon crowded. Everything and everybody 
was in motion; and as the afternoon approached, many coun- 
tenances were serious and sorrowful. But the volunteers 
seemed in the highest spirits and full of enthusiasm at the 
pr()si)ect of an early chance to fight for their country and slay 
rebels. The farmers of the county had tendered their services 
with their teams, to take the boys to Winchester, so freely 
that more teams were on the ground than could be used. 
About one o'clock, P. M., the soldiers were drawn up in line, 
the wagons and carriages brought out, and preparations were 
being made to start. This was the last opportunity to say 
' Farewell ' to the brave fellows who were now going to the 
war, perhaps never to return ; and it was well improved. It 
is useless for us to attempt a description of the scenes and 
incidents of that parting. The streets were filled with men 
and women crowding around the volunteers, shaking hands, 
speaking words of encouragement, giving the parting charge, 
and bidding farewell. 

" It was an affecting scene. Few indeed were the eyes not. 
wet with tears at that hour. The volunteers met the occasion 
like soldiers : they wept, as good soldiers always can, but 
they swerved not a moment in their parpose to go forth anl 
fight for the maintenance of our glorious Government." 

Amid loud cheers and the waving of hats and 
handkerchiefs, the long train of wagons and car- 
riages started, carrying two hundred persons, over 
one hundred of whom were a citizens' escort. At 
Winchester the citizers gladly entertained the 
soldiers, and the next day they reached Indiana- 
polis ; were sent to Camp Morton, and on the 
11th were sworn into the United States service 
for three years. Here they remained nearly one 
month, when they were assigned to the 39th reg- 

IN CAMP. 225 

iment Indiana volunteers, company C, and were 
then transferred to Camp Harrison, named in 
honor of tbeir gallant Colonel, Tlios. J. Harrison, 
who has been with them in all their meanderings 
upon the theatre of war. Here and at Camp 
Morton they were visited by many of the citizens 
of Jay. They were constantly drilled until Sep- 
temper 21st, when they marched Dixieward, ar- 
riving at Louisville the next morning. Here they 
were cordially welcomed by a sumptuous dinner, 
and addressed by a member of the Kentucky 
Legislature, who complimented them as being the 
first regiment from Indiana to cross the Ohio 
Kiver in response to Kentucky's call for help 
against traitors, many of whom were those of her 
own bosom. On platform cars they were at once 
taken to Muldraugh's Hill, nearly fifty miles 
south of Louisville, which was then considered 
"the front," At Rolling Fork, on Salt Eiver, 
they pitched tents, put out guards and pickets, 
passed their first night in the south. The next 
morning, gleeful at having marching orders, they 
were early equipped and on the march. They 
soon reached a stream, which they were ordered 
to wade, after taking off their " pants," This was 
fine sport, several things occurring which created 
great -merriment. 

That was the first hard march experienced by 
company C. Only those who have performed 

226 IN cAi^ip. 

similar marches can full}'' appreciate the hard- 
ships of the soldiers during the remainder of the 
march that day. The sun beamed down its most 
scorching rays, the dust was several inches deep, 
and the least stir in the air whirled it in suffocat- 
ing clouds around them. They were heavily 
burdened with knapsacks, hav'ersacks and accou- 
trements ; but by constant rallying they reached 
their destination about sunset. They were filed 
off into an open field, where they were compla- 
cently enjoying their rest, when a strange sound 
started them to their feet with an inquiry of alarm 
upon their countenances. It was the "long 
roll," beat upon a false alarm. Their ears have 
long since become familiar with that sound, yet 
it never fails to start their blood and bodies 
in quicker motion. Upon outspread blankets 
they passed the night in such a sleep as only 
wearied soldiers know how to appreciate. 

On the 10th of October they " struck tents " 
and marched to Camp ]^evin, twelve miles far- 
ther South. The force collected at this camp was 
the nucleus of what afterward became the o-rand 
"Army of the Cumberland." It was near this 
camp that the first blood of the Rebellion which 
fell upon Kentucky soil, was shed. Forty picked 
scouts (Jefferson Sewell and W. II. Blowers, 
from company C,) were sent out under Lieutenant 
Colonel Jones against a marauding body of two 


hundred rebels, near Bacon Creek. Taking a po- 
sition in a log house — the residence of the widow 
of the notorious villain, John A. Murrell — this 
squad, without receiving any injury, repulsed the 
rebels, wounding several. Sewell, by a timely 
stepping out of the cabin door, was saved from a 
rebel bullet. 

It was here, also, that company C was first 
called upon to lay some of its members in a sol- 
dier's grave. In a quiet, country grave-yard, on 
the banks of Nolin River, this sorrowing company 
consigned to the tomb the remains of Sergeant 
Robert G. Jackson, who died, December 6th, 

1861, of typhoid fever. He was sick for a long 
time in a church near the camp, used for a hospi- 
tal, where the best care possible under the cir- 
cumstances was bestowed upon him. He was a 
brave soldier, a true and generous friend, and well 
beloved by his fellow soldiers and friends at home. 

On the tenth of the same month another brave 
young man from that company — John McCroskey 
— was consigned to a resting place beside his com- 
rade Jackson. 

On the tenth of December the army marched 
to Munfordsville or Green River, Camp Wood. 

Here the army remained until February 15th, 

1862, when, a suflScient force having coU-ected, it 
moved against Bowling Green, occupied by Gen- 
eral Buckner. A flank movement by General 


Mitcliell compelled the enemy to fall back to Nash- 
ville, and our forces moved forward to that point. 
The capture of Fort Donelson by our forces, led 
to the evacuation of Nashville by the rebels, and 
our army took quiet possession. While encamped 
south of that city, the 39th regiment picketed 
that part of the country lying between Nolens- 
ville and the Franklin pike, and, on the 15th of 
March, company C had the honor of welcoming 
within the Federal lines that bold and sterling 
Tennessee patriot, W. G. Brow^nlow. Upon 
alighting from his vehicle, he waved his hat, 
raised his eyes towards heaven and shouted 
" Glory to God ! once more inside the Union 
pickets !" 

On arriving at Nashville, some were entirely 
bare-footed, having traveled in that condition 
many weary miles over the rough stone pike, their 
feet blistered and bleeding. But their hardships 
were borne with heroic fortitude, and that wise 
philosophy which quietly submits to ills that can- 
not be remedied. They consoled themselves with 
allusions to the privations of the Revolutionary 
fathers, and seemed proud to be called upon to 
emulate their courage and fortitude. But supplies 
soon arrived. 

On the 16th of March, 1862, the army at Nash- 
ville, (General Buell's,) set out on the march for 
the south-west. On Saturday, April 5th, Major 


General McCook's Division, in which was the 
39th regiment, encamped twenty-seven miles from 
Savannah, Tennessee, to prepare rations. Beeves 
were slaughtered, and the soldiers were congratu- 
lating themselves on the prospect of fresh beef 
and a day's rest, but the morning's sun brought 
to their' ears the booming of cannon, and the word 
that General Grant's army had been attacked and 
a terrible battle was in progress. A forced march 
was now ordered to reinforce Gj-ant, Taking 
three day's rations, the soldiers threw away 
blankets and knapsacks, and moved forward rap- 
idly. As they drew nearer, the cannonading 
grew more distinct and furious. At midnight, 
worn out and exhausted, they reached Savannah, 
seven miles from Pittsburg Landing — the scene 
of the terrific contest. No boats being ready, the 
soldiers threw themselves down in the streets. A 
pelting hail-storm made sleep impossible. 

In the morning the roaring of cannon told them 
that the contest on the battle-Held was renewed, 
even more fiercely than on the day previous. A 
boat transferred their brigade, consisting of the 
32d and 39th Indiana, and 15th and 49th Ohio to 
the scene of conflict, arriving about 11 o'clock a. 
m. The fighting was then nearly two miles from 
the landing. 

Standing upon the boat's deck they listened to 
the noise of the battle, which was one continual 


roar of cannon and rattle of musketry. They saw 
behind the hill a large force of cowardly strag- 
glers, who had fled, unharmed, from the front, and 
hundreds of the wounded and dying borne back 
from the field. They marched immediately to the 
battle-ground, where they were ordered to lie 
down as reserves, which they did for half an hour, 
while the shock of the raging battle seemed to 
shake the very earth upon which they lay. They 
then marched to the front and opened their part 
of the light amid one incessant peal of musketry. 
Company C fought bravely for two hours and a 
half, when the sight of the retreating enemy 
brought enthusiastic cheers from our army. 

The Jay Torch-Light of April 24th, speaking 
of this company said : 

" By letter from Lieutenant Clark, we learn the part borne by 
the Jay County boys in the great battle of Shiloh. They were in 
the thickest of the fight for two and one-half hours, and, during 
that time, the rebels commenced their retreat. They fought 
bravely and well, though it was the first battle they had ever 
engaged in. It was a trying time to their nerve and courage. 
For nearly two daj^s the battle had raged most furiously, and, 
more than half that time the rebels had driven our men. The 
boys heard the cannonading from the opening roar and had 
seen hundreds of the wounded and dying borne from the field. 
In these circumstances they were called into the field and placed 
in the centre. It was like marching into the jaws of death. 
But they went forward boldJy and fought well. All honor to 
them. Jay County is proud of her soldiers." 


Captain Wilson being at home on the recruit- 
ing service, tlie company was commanded by 
Lieutenants J. G. Cowell and C. H. Clark. The 
casualties in company C were as follows : Stephen 
J. Bailey, mortally wounded in the thigh, James 
Q. Odle, mortally wounded in the arm, Edwin 
Hoover, wounded in left arm, Penbroke S. Bodle, 
slightly in the neck, J. N. Stratton, slightly in 
the neck. 

When Bailey was being carried from the field, 
he said to Lieutenant Clark, " Tell my mother I 
died like a man, fighting for my country." At 
that moment the cheers of our troops were heard, 
and he inquired what it meant. Upon being told 
that the rebels were running, he said, "Then I die 
in peace." He was carried from the field, placed 
upon a boat, and taken to Mound City Hospital, 
Illinois, where he died, April lYth, 1863. He was 
a very intelligent young man, interesting in con- 
versation, quiet and industrious. He was the son of 
Mrs. Mary Bailey, of Camden, and was raised a 
Quaker. He was the Jirst soldier from Jay Cott/n- 
ty to yield up his life to rebel bullets, and was wor- 
thy of this honorable niche in the history of the 

James Q. Odle died at the residence of his 
brother, at Windsor, Randolph County, Indiana, 
June 18th, 1862. His remains were interred at 
Deerfield, Indiana. 


Many soldiers contracted diseases from expo- 
sure by encamping on the Held after the heat and 
excitement of that battle. Among them was Mr. 
James Hathaway, who died Ma}^ 16th, 1862, at 
Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. He was forty-eight 
years of age when he volunteered in his country's 
service, leaving a large famil}'. He was a Chris- 
tian, in every sense of the term. While he served 
God faithfully, he was true to his country. lie 
was the patriarch and moral monitor of the com- 
pany. Vice, in many of its members, he would 
reprove in a manner that always elicited from the 
reproved warm love and respect, and they all 
sincerel}^ mourned his death. From his position 
as musician, he was not required to go into battle, 
but, laying aside the fife at Pittsburg Landing, he 
went with the comany into the battle, unarmed, 
but seizing the first deserted musket, bravely 
fought until the battle was over. His memory 
will be cherished as one of Jay County's noblest 

The army encamped on the battle-field for sev- 
eral days, then marched against Corinth. At 
Bridge Creek, company C participated in a severe 
fight, but received no injury. 

They remained near Corinth until about the 
middle of June, when they marched southward 
to Huntsville, Alabama, arriving there July 4th. 
Here the 39th were ordered to Bridgeport, Ala- 



bama, to guard the crossing of the Tennessee 
liiver, which they did until August 20th, when 
they joined the forces collecting at Battle Creek 
for an advance upon Chattanooga. But, when 
within a few miles of the place, an order, surpris- 
ing every soldier, was given for them to return. 
Then commenced the famous " Buell's retreat," 
or race with General Bragg, across Tennessee and 
Kentucky, which though honorable to the soldiers, 
was ver}'^ disgraceful to their commander. 

In this fatiguing march the soldiers were most 
of the time destitute of rations, and had to exist 
upon fruit, green corn and meat supplied by for- 
aging parties. As the corn became hard they 
parted their canteens and, punching them full of 
holes, made graters, from which, with commenda- 
ble perseverance, they manufactured sufficient 
corn meal to keep off actual want, yet many nights 
they had to lie down, not only tired, but very 

The appearance of the army on reaching Louis- 
ville clearly indicated the hard marching and pri- 
vations to which it had been subjected. Tarrying 
long enough to replenish their exhausted ward- 
robe, on the 1st day of October, 1862, they 
again started on the long, forward march to re- 
deem the territory which incompetency, or 
half-hearted loyalty had given to the rebel- 


The marching was as severe in this advance as 
it had been in the retreat. The weather was very 
hot, the earth parched, and water scarce. The 
men often marched until- midnijiht, and would 
then have to walk one or two miles for water. 
Swine were driven from the wallow and the water 
used to make coffee and quench thirst, and, on 
one occasion, even drinking water from a hole in 
which lay dead horses, mules and dogs ! and, at 
other times, pushing back a green scum, an inch 
in thickness, to till their canteens. Amid these 
trying circumstances, an indomitable spirit of pat- 
riotism prevailed and few complaints were uttered. 

At Nasihville, General Rosecrans succeeded to 
the command, in the place of Buell, removed, 
who was hailed with enthusiastic delight by the 
Army of the Cumberland. 

General Bragg had halted in his precipitate 
retreat, and fortified Murfreesboro, and the 39th 
being encamped some distance in front of Nash- 
ville, were much of the time skirmishing with 
scouting parties of the enemy. 

On the 25th of December General Rosecrans 
ordered an attack upon the rebels, which was the 
preliminary of the great battle of Stone River. 
On the night of the 29th, the army encamped upon 
the open field before the enemy. On the 30th an 
engagement with part of the line took place, and 
General McCook's Division, in which was the 


39th, was moved up as a reserve, and, in the eve- 
ning, was placed upon the right, on picket. 

Just at daylight, next morning, the enemy, sev- 
eral lines deep, attacked the 39th, driving them 
back in confusion, killing and capturing many. 
The loss of company C was as follows : John 
Hilton, mortally wounded, Eugene Plumb, mor- 
tally wounded, Cyrus Stanley, severely wounded, 
G-. H. Bassett, severely wounded in groin, John 
McClelland, wounded in neck, and forty prisoners, 
as indicated in the list of members. 

On JSTew Year's, 1864, these prisoners were put 
on board the cars at Murfreesboro and started 
toward Richmond, where they arrived in two 
weeks, having suifered severely on the route, for 
want of food. They were first confined in a 
tobacco warehouse, and afterward in Libby Prison. 
Their stomachs rebelled against the meagre, un- 
savory prison rations. A small loaf of bread, some 
soup and bad beef, was, at first, an allowance for 
each man, daily, but, before they left, this supply 
was divided between six men. 

On the 28th of January, 1863, the unwoundod 
privates of company C, with many others, marched 
through the city to the canal. While cross- 
ing this the bridge gave way and precipitated 
them twenty feet, into water fifteen feet deep. 
The canal Wiis walled with stone, and the men 
could not get out without assistance, but the guard 


and citizens viewed the spectacle witli folded 
arms. By the aid of comrades in tlie rear they 
escaped. In this half drowned condition they were 
placed upon filthy stock cars and pent to City 
Point, Virginia, and thence to Annapolis. Their 
joy at being once more under the " Stars and 
Stripes" found vent in hearty cheers. Their warm 
welcome home made them forget for a season 
their recent hardships. 

During the battle, Cyrus Stanley was struck 
near the back-bone, by a musket ball, whicli en- 
tered his right kidney. While Daniel Walter 
was helping him off the field, Stanley's hat was 
shot off, and two balls passed through Walter's 
clothes. But they were both captured. With his 
wound undressed and bleeding, on platform cais, 
without covering, Stanley was taken to Chattanoo- 
ga, having been three days and nights without 
one morsel of food ! Six rebel surgeons examined 
his wound and pronounced it latal. But his quiet 
spirit and courageous determination saved him 
from a southern grave. 

On the 5th of March, 1863, he and thirteen oth 
ers were taken to Knoxville, and thence (March 
8th) to Libby Prison — that dungeon whose men- 
tion brings to mind all that is horrible and revolt- 
ing in human suffering. All this time Stanley 
had not recovered sufticiently to walk, even upon 
crutches. He was confined in a room with near- 


ly three hundred others. Their scanty daily al- . 
lowance was of the most repulsive kind, and some 
died in the room of actual starvation. On the 
18th of March he was taken to Washington City, 
where he wrote to his friends in Jay. The letter 
was like a voice from the dead, for they had sup- 
posed his wound had long since proved fatal. He 
was taken to Davis' Island, Kew York, on the 
5th of May, and in one month was able to start 
home. He is now County Recorder. Capt. J. 
G. Crowell and Lieut. G. T. Winters were not ex- 
changed for some time aftef this. A mere frag- 
ment of the company could be rallied on the bat- 
tle-field on that New Tear's day. Early in May, 
the paroled members of company C having been 
exchanged, rejoined the regiment at Nashville, 
where they found their comrades had been 
mounted and armed with the Spencer rifle. They 
have since been designated as the 8th Indiana 
Mounted Infantry. At Tullahoma the regiment 
had the post of danger, and distinguished itself 
whenever engaged. At Dechard Ford, two miles 
south of Winchester, company C made a gallant 
charge and was highly complimented. Lieut. 
Winters was wounded in the foot, Luther J. Ba- 
ker in the leg, L. W. Lemasters severely in the 
breast, and eleven horses killed. In the sanguin- 
ary struggle at Chickamauga, the 39th took an 
honorable part and came out unscathed. Soon 


after this, many of these veterans re-enlisted, re- 
ceiv^liig throe hundred and four dollars additional 
bounty. On the 20th of February, 1864, the 
regiment distinguished itself by a noted reeon- 
noissance at Tunnell Hill, Buzzard Roost and 
Dalton, and remained in the immediate front un- 
til March 25th, when the whole regiment was 
furlouorhed and came home. The war-worn vet- 
erans were warml}^ welcomed by the citizens of 
Indianapolis, and hastened home to enjoy the 
company of friends and relatives, from whom they 
had so long been absent. In a few days compa- 
ny B, 34:th Indiana regiment, came home, also on 
veteran furlough, and the two companies were 
publicly welcomed by large parties and fine sup- 
pers at Portland, Camden and College Corner. 
At the expiration of their furlough, the regiment 
re-assembled at Indianapolis, and. May 11th, left 
for Nashville to renew their conflicts with traitors. 
Early in July they were ordered to Marietta, 
where they have lately distinguished themselves 
in a daring and effectual raid. This regiment has 
participated in the following battles : 














In all of these company C have borne an hon- 
orable part, reflecting credit upon themselves and 
the county they represent, and with heroic deeds 
inscribing an imperishable record upon the annals 
of their country. 


[Those marked * re-enlisted, and those marked t are discharged. The J 
denotes those captured at Stone River.] 

Captain Stephen L. "Wilson, resigned July 18tli, 1863. 
First Lieutenant John Q. Lewis, resigned March 10th, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant Curtis H. Clark, promoted first lieutenant. 
Resigned October 16th, 1863. 


[Promotions among non-commissioned officers and privates were no^ 
reported to the author.] 

Orderly, J. G. Crowell, promoted 1st lieutenant, then captain.:): 

R. G. Jackson, died December 6th, 1861. 

J. G. Wagner, died June 10th, 1863. 

I. N. Stratton, promoted second lieutenant. 

Andrew Jackson,* promoted to orderly. 


John McClellan, J. M. Bromagem,*^: 

Thomas Bosworth, Calvin Burdg,* 


coMPAinr c. 

Solomon Lupton *|: 
G. T. Winters, promoted to 
first lieutenant^ 

Calvin Rynearson,f 
George Clark * promoted to 
orderly sergeant:}:. 


Jolin Hanna, died December James Hathaway, died May 
15th, 1862. 16th, 1862. 

Francis Twiggs. 



Calvin S. Adams, 

Edwin Adams,f 

W. G. Adams,f 

H. H. Antles.t 

George R. Ashley,* 

S. J. Bailey, died at Mound 
City, 111., April 1st, 1862. 

William Baird.t 

L. J. Baker,*t 

G. H. Bassett,* wounded at 
Stone River, 

Joseph Bisel, died Septem- 
ber 14th, 1862, 

W. H. Blowers,* (Adams Co.) 

J. L. Bockoven,*! 

P. S. Bodle,* wounded at 

Anthony Brown,* :]: 

Jason Bryan,* 

Aaron Brighton,f 

John Burdg,* 

William Clawson,* t 

Michael Cookerly,-)- 

H. D. Clevenger, died June 
12th, 1863, 

Christian Long,* ^ 

L. A. Long,:): 

A. A. Mason,* 

J. S. Maxwell,*^ 

John McCroskey, died Dec. 

10th, 1861. 
William Metty,* 
J. W. Miller, 
Isaiah Mills,:^ 
W. H. Moore,t 
John Nidey, 
Lafayette Nidey,* 
John Nixon, I 
A. J. Nuckles, 
J. Q. Odle, mortally wounded 

at Shiloh, died June 18th, 

Reuben Orner,f 
Christian Parks,* 
Edward Pingry,* 
W. J. Ralph,* 
F. M. Reed, 
Hezekiah Reed,^ 
Frederick Rhodes,* 
William Richmond,! 



M. L. Collett * t 

G. W. Cookerly, 

J. A. Cummins,:|: 

J. H. Darby, died June 14th, 

J. A. Eiclier,* 

E. R. Fetters, 

B. F. Freeman,*! 

William Green,* 

Samuel Hammitt,*|: 

G. W. Hardy ,*t 

John Hilton, wounded mor- 
tally at Stone River, and 
died Jan. 25th, 18G3, 

Samuel Hilton, *t 

J. W. Hoke,* 

Edward Hoover. 

G. H. Jackson,* 

B. B. Jenkins, 

L. W. Lemasters,f 

A. G. Lewis,* 

Sylvester Lewis,^: 

JeflPerson Sewell,* (Adams Co.) 

S. W. Shannon,* t 

J. A. Shewalter,*:]: 

J. W. Shewalter,i 

D. T. Skinner, promoted to 

captain 7th Ind. Cavalry, 
Samuel Sloan, f 
Cyrus Stanley,! J 
William Sturges,f 
William Stranahan,f 
J. W. Swallow, died January 

5th, 1862, 
D. T. Taylor,* 

J. N. Vance, died Jan. 13, 1863. 
W. C. Votaw,* 
Daniel Walter,* :[: 
M. W. Wagner,* 
D. O. Whipple,t 
J. B. Worden, 
C. E. Yost, 
Franklin Stanley,*:]: 

D. S. Arnold, 

C. Ashley, 

W. Broughman, 

W. S. Baldwin, 

A. Bodle, 

H. Barber, 

A. Clear, 

James Collins, 

A. Cook, 

W. R. Dutcher, died April 

3d, 1863, 
A. Fetters, died Aug. 3, 1863, 


Henry Jones, 
William Jones, 
Solomon Keck, 
J. McLaughlin, 
I. Murray, 
J. B. Marquis, 
G. W. Miller, 
Thomas Paxson, 
Peter Stultz, 
Dixon Towle, 
H. Treheam, 
B. Valentine, 


D. Fetters, E. Wilkerson, 

W. H. Force, Ellis Wilder, died May 12, 1864. 

I. Garringer, William Wilkerson, 

S. Hoke, Nathan B. Winters. 

The following were nine-months' drafted or substitute 
recruits, who joined this company — all now discharged except 
one. They were drafted October 6th, 1862 : 

James Bales, Levi Mason,:): 

W. Bridgford,t James Pitt, 

J. W. Bartmes,:!: volunteered, James Patterson, 

James Cunningham,^ Eugene Plumb, wounded mor- 

William Ernest,^ - tally at Stone River, died 

Benjamin Heston, • Jan. 1 9th, 1863, 

P. C. Jones,t G. W. Swhier, 

A. J. Landis, D. Theurer. 


Volunteers 130 

Drafted Recruits , 14 

Died 17 

Resigned and Discharged 27 

The liistor}'^ of company C lias been given at 
length for several reasons. It was the first com- 
pany to go from the county, and has been longest 
in the service. Many things, also, connected with 
its history can be related of all other Jay Coimty 
companies ; but having been given, need not be 

During the latter part of August, 1861, James 
W. Campbell and Nimrod Headington recruited 
a company for the three years service. An elec- 


tion resulted in the choice of Mr. Campbell as 
Captain ; Mr. Headington, First Lieutenant, and 
Benjamin G. Shinu, Second Lieutenant. On the 
1st of September the ladies of Portland gave a 
farewell supper to the company, and on the fol- 
lowing morning they departed for camp at Ander- 
son, Indiana, where they became company B in 
the 34th regiment. They were mustered into the 
United States service September 21st. Asberry 
Steele, of Grant County, was their first Colonel. 


Captain, James W. Campbell. 

" Nimrod Headington — first lieutenant and captain, 
now major. 
First Lieutenant, David A. Harter. 

Second Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Shinn — resigned Nov., 1861. 
" " David D. Hastie— promoted Nov., 1861 ; 

resigned Dec. 25th, 1862. 
" " Abraham M. Templer — promoted captain. 

" " Thomas Helm. 


John Bromagem, Benjamin F. Harter. 

William Cruthers, 


Stephen Straley, wounded at Warner Cox, died at Memphis, 

Champion Hill, Tenn., August 6, 1862. 

George W. Stowell, James P. Gibson, 

Enoch H. Harker, Anthony W. Shey, 

JohnHammitt, James A. Crisler. 
Joseph P. Bishop, 



Abner Hyde, 


George O. Carle. 


Samuel Adair, 

Perry L. Burk, 

Hamilton Cash, 

David Crisler, wounded at 

Champion Hill, 
George W. Denney, wounded 

at Champion Hill, 
Henry W. Duckett, 
Jonathan Elliott, 
Benjamin Foush, 
Joseph J. Glover, 
Edward B. Hawley, 
John Hawley, 
William M. Hutzler, 
Wesley S. IliflP, 
Mark Kinnison, 
Aaron Letts, 
John W. Lethe, 
Charles O. Lindsay, 
William K. Louk, wounded 

at Champion Hill, 
James Logan, 
Christopher Loper, 
John R. May, 

John Morily, wounded at Fort 

Simon P. Marrow, 
Elias K. Maddox, 
Ozias McKinstry, 
Ichabod Nichols, 
Michael T. Paxson, 
John Parsons, 
William Pugh, 
John H. F. Pugh, wounded 

at Champion Hill, 
Albert Pugh, 
John L. Reeves, 
William S. Reeves, 
Joshua Siders, 
Edward Siders, 
George W. Stoner, 
William W. Swallow, 
Isaac I. Swallow, 
John F. Stowe, 
John M. Thomas, 
William Votaw, 
William Williams, 
JeflFerson J. Williams. 


Gabriel F. Barnes— Jan. 24th, 1862. 
Sergeant Sylvester Hiatt— March 28th, 1862. 
Corporal John F. Connett— Feb. 9th, 1863. 
Dallas D. Chapmar — killed at Champion Hill. 
Matthew Dodds— Feb. 21st, 1862. 
John J. Swaney — killed at Champion Hill. 
George L. Adair. 


Bailiflf W. Stowell — mortally wounded at Port Gibson ; died 

May 28tb, 1863. 
Finley Blair— Feb. 13tb, 186?. 

William H. H. Bailey — mortally wounded at Cbampion Hill. 
John Cline— Feb. 2Gth, 1802. 
Levi Clean— May 6th, 1862. 
Warner Cox— Aug. 6th, 1862. 
Oliver P. Karnes. 
Jeremiah Franklin. 
John J. Haivland— Feb. 24th, 1862. 
Levi P. Morrow— May 3d, 1862. 
Joseph Mihals. 

Joseph Perry — killed at Champion Hill. 
Jacob B. Spade— March 8th, 1862. 
Ira Somers— Feb. 10th, 1862. 
John S. Stoner— Jan. 24th, 1862. 
Jacob Valentine. 


Henry Crabtree and Clinton DeardoiF, on account of ill health. 
Jno. Geiger, on account of wound received at Champion Hill. 
James P. Gibson, Isaac Vanhorn, 

James M. Hoover, John L. Walker, 

James J. Hite, Lewis Crisler, 

Edward B. Keagel, Sergeant Isaac Hanna, 

William A. Latham, Bennett Goodson, 

Joshua Nichols, Sergeant Jacob T. Wells. 


Thos. Airly, to Invalid Corps, for wounds at Champion Hill. 
Patrick Doyle, " " " " " 

Morris G. Ward, to Non-commissioned Staff. 

Allen Jaqua was a member of regimental band, 84th Regt. 


Whole number 126 

Transferred, Resigned and Discharged 19 

Died 23 


On the 21st of October they went to Camp Jo. 
Holt, at Indianapulis ; thence, November 16th, to 
New Haven, Kentucky; remained thereuntil the 
28th of December, when they moved to Camp 
Wickliffe. In February, 1862, they marched to 
the mouth of Salt Hiver, in the same State. The 
company had been very healthy until near the 
close of the year 1861, when, in about one 
month, eight of its members died, most of them 
of pneumonia. Their health began to improve 
with their removal from Camp AVickliife. At the 
mouth of Salt River the ret^iment embarked on 
board a steamboat for Point Commerce, on the 
Mississippi Kiver, in the State of Missouri. They 
marched across the country from this place by the 
way of Benton to New Madrid. The company 
took part in the siege of that town, and while so 
engaged they assisted in hauling a heavy cannon 
by hand to Biddle Point, a distance of fifteen 
miles, through swamps, and in the night. With 
this guu four of the rebel gunboats were driven 
off, one of which was disabled. After the capture 
of New Madrid, the company remained at that 
place until the 15th of June, 1862, when the 34tli 
regiment was ordered on board transports and 
proceeded to Memphis, Tenn. Remaining there 
but a short time, the_y accompanied Col. Graham 
N. Fitch in his expedition up the White River. 
This company participated in the tight at Grand 


Prairie; thence returning to Helena, Arkansas, 
where the regiment remained from August 1st, 

1862, until April 12th, 1863, moving out occasion- 
ally on the roads leading from that place to Little 
Rock, Clarendon and D avail's Bluff, to watch the 
movements of the enemy. The regiment also 
made two other excursions up White Eiver, under 
Gen. Willis A. Gorman. On the 12th of April, 

1863, the regiment was placed on board trans- 
ports, with orders to report to Gen. Grant at 
Young's Point, Louisiana. Arriving there on 
16th of April, the troops marched to Grand Gulf, 
or Perkins' Plantation, a distance of iifty miles, 
across a country interspersed with br^ad and deep 
bayous and swamps, which were bridged by the 
soldiers before they could be crossed. 

Before narrating the stirring events that come 
next in chronological order, it is proper to state 
that Col. Steele having resigned, Lieut. Col. (now 
General) Cameron became Colonel. Prior to this 
Lieut. Headington had been detailed to command 
company K, of the same regiment ; but Captain 
Campbell having been appointed Lieutenant Col- 
onel of the 1st Arkansas colored regiment, he be- 
came Captain of company B. The regiment was 
assigned to the 13th Army Corps, 12th Division, 
commanded by Gen. A. P. Hovey. 

The 30th day of April was spent in transporting 
the troops across the river, preparing rations, and 


makino; other arrangements fur a march. Jnst at 
dark the arm}^ comtiienced their Hue of march, in 
the direction of Port Gibson. After marching all 
night the advance guard fell in with the enemy's 
pickets about five o'clock in the morning, some 
four miles from Port Gibson. At daybreak a 
halt was ordered, and the men were allowed fif- 
teen minutes to take some refreshments. AVhile 
the men were yet eating, the enemy opened fire 
upon them with artillery. The troops were im- 
mediately ordered to march to the summit of a 
steep hill, where they were formed in line of bat- 
tle and moved steadily forward. 

The engagement now became general along the 
whole line. Our army, however, marched steadily 
through a dense cane-brake, some four hundred 
yards, and, on emerging from this thicket, one of 
the enemy's batteries was discovered only about 
two hundred yards distant, which was belching 
forth grape and canister at a furious rate. 

A charge was ordered, and, in a short time, the 
battery was captured, together with two wagons 
loaded with ammunition, and about three hundred 

The 34tli regiment was in the advance in this 
charge, and six men in cf>mpany B were wounded, 
one of whom, Bailiff W. Stowell, died of his 

The battle continued through the whole day 


the enemy slowly but steadily falling back. At 
night our troops slept upon their arras, on the 
battle-field. The morning of the 2d of May re- 
vealed the fact that the enemy had fled during the 
night, and the Federal army occupied Port Gib- 
son, early in the day. 

On the 3d of May the army moved toward 
Jackson, Mississij^pi, and, after taking that place, 
started in the direction of Yicksburg. 

On the 16th of May the battle of Champion 
Hills was fought. General Hovey's Division 
bore the brunt of the fight. Company B, of the 
34th regiment, lost in killed and wounded, 
seventeen men. 

Captain Headington, two days after the battle 
writes : " We fought another hard battle on the 
16th, in v/liich many of our brave boys fell. In 
my company first fell, by my side, William H. H. 
Bailey, mortally wounded, next Staley, then Chap- 
man on my right fell, mortally wounded, while 
defending the colors. Then, on my left, Perry 
was killed, then fell Swaney, mortally wounded, 
then Geiger, wounded in the leg, then Doyle, 
wounded in the shoulder^ Airley, wounded in the 
thigh, Pugh, wounded in the back, Daniel Crisler, 
in the arm, George Denney, in the hand, William 
Louk, in the hand, D. Shinn, in the wrist, James 
Crislee, in the shoulder, Houk, in the hand. Ham- 
mitt in the leg — seventeen in all. Never did 


bojs light braver than did company B. Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Swain is wounded in the lungs, I 
fear mortally. Our regiment killed and captured 
one entire Alabama regiment. We made it so 
hot for them that the colonel rode up, threw up 
his hat and cried for mercy, saying that he sur- 
rendered his whole command." 

The enemy was completely routed and driven 
from the held, leaving their dead and wounded. 
The 16th and part of the 1 8th were spent in bury- 
ing the dead. 

On the morning of the 19th, the army moved 
in the direction of Vicksburg, and, on the 20th, 
at early dawn, came in sight of the doomed city. 
Then commenced the memorable seige of that 
town, which resulted in its surrender, with the en- 
tire army, under G-eneral Peraberton, on the 4th 
of July, 1863. 

This company was engaged in this siege from 
the commencement to its close, shooting during 
the day, and digging in the trenches during the 
night, yet not one of them was injured by the 
shots of the enemy during the whole time. 

On the 5th of July the regiment started for Jack- 
son, Mississippi, under General Sherman, when 
the rebel General Johnston was driven from that 
place, and man}- miles of railroad destroyed. 

Early in August the regiment went to Natches, 
and thence to New Orleans, where they ar- 


rived on the 15th of that month. Remaining 
about a month, they were ordered to Brashier 
City. From there they accompanied Banks' expe- 
dition to Teche Bayou, and were engaged for 
two months, without tents, in scouting through 
the country, occasionally encountering small 
bodies of rebels, which were uniformly captured 
or put to flight. They came, by a forced march, 
to the assistance of General Burbridge, at the bat- 
tle of Carrion Crow, in time to save him from 
defeat. The regiment arrived at New Iberia, 
Louisiana, on the 10th of December, and, on the 
14th of that month, most of the men re-enlisted, 
including forty-four of company B. 

The regiment returned to New Orleans on the 
23d day of December. On the 29th, they em- 
barked on board a steam-ship for Matagorda Pe- 
ninsula, Texas. After remaining there two 
months the regiment returned to New Orleans on 
the 23d of February, 1864, where they remained 
until the 20th of March, when the re-enlisted men 
were farloughed for thirty days. They started 
for their homes immediately, arriving at Indian- 
apolis on the 29th, and, on the 1st of April, were 
given a grand reception by the Governor and 
other dignitaries of the State and city of Indian- 

On the morning of the 3d of April the veterans 
belonging to Jay County received the greetings 


of their friends at home, after an absence of two 
years and seven months. 

After spending a month among their friends 
they again returned to their field of service. Ar- 
riving at Indianapolis on the 2d of May, 1864, 
they remained one week at Gamp Carrington and 
the 19th of May found them again at New Orleans, 
where they still remain. 

Before the regiment left Indianapolis, Captain 
Headington was promoted to Major of the 3ith 

This company, throughout the varied and ardu- 
ous services in which they have been engaged, 
have, on all occasions, acquitted themselves with 
distinguished honor, and, in the future, they will 
not be found wanting in bravery, patient endur- 
ance and devotion to their country's cause in every 
trial to which the fortunes of war may subject 


Captain, Joseph R Winters. 

First Lieutenant, Royal Denney, resigned Dec. 6th, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant, Levi James, resigned Jan. 15th, 1863. 


Frederick "W. White, promoted first lieutenant Jan. 16, 1863. 

Joseph L. Hall, promoted to first sergeant. 

Joseph Eblin. 

Aaron W. Wright, promoted second lieutenant Jan. 16, 1863 

John H. Jackson. 



'William S. Peterson, promoted to fourth sergeant. 

\dam Loy, promoted to fifth sergeant. 

Stephen A. Stratton, died in Fort Pickering Aug. 9th, 1863. 

Charles T. O'Harra, David W.*Adams, 

Perry Arbaugh, Elijali Broughman. 

Jonathan Cloud, musician, wounded at Munfordsville, Ky., 

Sept. 14th, 1862. 
John Ogden, musician. Philo P. Way, wagoner. 


[The t denotes those discharged.] 

David S. Arnold,f William Henry, 

Daniel Armantrout,f Silas Isenhart, died July 5th, 

John Armantrout, 1863, 

John C. Athy, killed at Yel- John D. Jetter, 
low Bayou, Louisiana, Joseph Jackson, 
May 18th, 1864, Samuel W. Jones, died Oct., 

George W. Arbaugh, pro- 1863, 

moted corporal, Jesse James, died May, 1863, 

William T. Adams, at Fort Pickering, 

David Boyles, died in hospi- Francis M. Kelley, 

tal at St. Louis, Jasper N. Loofbourrow, 

Daniel Broughman, died Dec. Henry Landers,f 
8th, 1862, at camp near Chester Lewis, 
Memphis, Christopher Loper,f 

George M. Brewington, Robert W. McFarland, died at 

John C. Beard, Fort Pickering, July 20th, 

Hallot Bryan, died at hospi- 1863, 

tal, Memphis, William H. Mason,f 

Abraham Bartmes, Charles A. Morehous, 

George W. Beason, killed at Mahlon Morrical,. 

Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, George W. Meek, killed May 
April 9th, 1864, 7th, 1864, at Lamore, La. 

John Bonecutter, Ebenezer Miller. 



Joseph Blackburn,f 
Stephen Barr, 
Elias Buckingham, 
Absalom Bergman, 
Josiah Clawson, 
Garrett Clawson, 
Cornelius Corwiu, promoted 

Peter M. Cook,t 
John A. Conkle, 
Fountain Delph, 
Minor Evelsizor, 
Lafayette Evelsizor, died in 

Fort Pickering, 
Jesse Elliott,f 
Benjamin Fifer, 
George W. Glassford,f 
Willi^mi filbert, 
Joseph €k^ay, killed at Yel- 
low Bayou, Louisiana, 

May 18th, 1864, 
Lewis H. Houser, 
William R. Haffner, 
Benjamin J. Hudson, died in 

hospital, Memphis, Aug. 

3d, 1864, 
George Henry, wounded and 

left in hands of rebels 

at Pleasant Hill, April 

9th, 1864, 
John Hanlin, promoted to 


Timothy JSTidey, 

Henry C. Powers, 

Samuel Premer, 

Frederick Premer, died in hos- 
pital at Memphis, March 
10th, 1864, 

John G. Ross, 

Isaac Rantzf 

Daniel Rosnong, 

William K. Sanders, transfer- 
red to marine fleet, 

William Shane, 

Lonton Scott, f 

George W. Swihart, 

William IL Stratton, died at 
Fort Pickering, March 1st, 

Timothy L. Stratton, 

Franklin Snyder, promoted to 

Levi Sager, 

William Sigler, killed at Yel- 
low Bayou, May 18, 1&64, 

Jacob Teters, 

Jeremiah Tinkle, died at home, 

Washington Walter 

Francis Warnock, 

Robert Wible, 

Jacob Wible, 

Joseph Williams, 

Robert Young, died at Fort 
Pickering, March 5, 1863. 


Elias Loofbourrow, 
William F. Metzner, 
J In Y.Miller, 

William S. Kelley, 
Pliny Bickle. 




Whole number 100 

Resigned, Transferred and Discharged 14 

Died 15 

Reported as Deserters, not included above 4 

Company E was recruited in August, 1862, and, 
on the 18th of that month, left Jay for camp, 
having first accepted a bountiful farewell supper 
from the ladies. The next day they reached camp 
at "Wabash, Indiana, Colonel John U. Pettit, com- 
mandant, where the following officers were unan- 
imously elected : Captain, Joseph P. Winters, 
First Lieutenant, Royal Denney, Second Lieuten- 
ant, Levi James. 

On the 26th they went to Indianapolis, where 
they received arms, uniforms, one month's wages, 
and twenty-five dollars of their bounty. They 
arrived in Louisville August 31st, Thus, in about 
twenty days, this full company had been recruited, 
armed, equipped and had arrived in Dixie, ready 
for active service which they were soon called up- 
on to perform. 

They reached Munfordsville, Kentucky, Sep- 
tember 3d, where they were stationed to guard 
the railroad bridge across Green river. 

There were two small forts here, one above, the 
other below the bridge, between which a line of 
breastworks had been commenced, and negroes 
were now at work upon them. The number of 


troops at this point now was twenty-five hundred. 
On the night of the 13th of September the troops 
were called out and stationed around the works. 
About daylight they were attacked by eight 
thousand rebels, under Chalmers, when they were 
driven within their fortifications. The rebels then 
charged that part of the fort where the 89th regi- 
ment was stationed, but were driven back with 
heavy loss. After making another similarly un- 
successful attempt upon another part of the forti- 
fications, the enemy withdrew, and, having ob- 
tained permission, spent the remainder of the day 
burying their dead and caring for the wounded. 
Our loss in killed and wounded was about forty, 
while that of the enemy was seven hundred. 

Company E lost one man, Jonathan Cloud, 
seriously wounded. The next day our men re- 
ceived a reinforcement of two regiments and six 
pieces of artillery. 

Chalmer's force proved to be only the advance 
of Bragg's great army, a part of which completely 
surrounded our small force, planting artillery on 
every hill lying around the fortifications. It was 
a useless waste of life to contend longer, and, on 
the morning of the lYth of September, the entire 
Federal force surrendered. It is notorious that 
General Buell, being near by with his immense 
army, might easily have turned this disaster into 
a victory, but he failed to do it. These prisoners 


were immediately paroled and sent toward Buell's 
army. They went iirst to Bowling Green and 
thence to the Ohio river, at Brandenbnrg, from 
which place they came to Jeffersonville. Dm-ing 
their march to the river they suffered much ; 
hard marching and exposure had made many 
sick, and they had to live upon the country 
through which they were passing. At Indian- 
apolis they were fourloughed for twenty days, 
and all returned, home, having been in the service 
less than six weeks. While at home, Lieutenant 
Denney was elected County Treasurer, to succeed. 
J. P. Winters, who held that office when he en- 
tered the army. 

On the 27th of October they returned to parole 
camp, at Indianapolis, where, on the 17th of 
]^ovember, just two months after their surrender. 
Governor Morton, in a speech, informed them 
that they had been exchanged. 

On the 4th of December they took the cars for 
Cairo, Illinois, where they proceeded aboard the 
Ohio Belle, bound for Memphis, where they ar- 
rived December 8th, and camped one mile south- 
east of the city. They performed picket duty 
around the city until near the close of the month, 
when they were stationed in Fort Pickering, on the 
river just below the city, where they remained 
nearly one year — until October 18th, 1863. This 
long period of the history of this company, though 

258 Sherman's raid. 

checkered with many interesting incidents, such as 
visits from friends, journeys up and down the river 
as guards, etc., may, nevertheless, be characterized 
as very dull and monotonous. 

On the Yth of April, 1863, Capt. J. P. Winters 
was honored with the appointment from Gen. 
Yeatch of Provost Marshal of Fort Pickering, 
which position he HUed with much credit during 
his stay at the fort. During this absence of the 
Captain the company was commanded by Lieut. 

There was great joy in company E when, Octo- 
ber 18th, they were removed from the Fort to a 
beautiful camping ground on Poplar street, east 
of Memphis, and again assigned to picket duty 
around the city. Here the boys declare the pleas- 
antest part of their soldier-life was spent. The 
duty was light ; but above all the pure air and ex- 
ercise they now enjoyed, so in contrast with their 
long confinement in the Fort, brought back health 
and buoyancy- of spirits to the men. But a soldier's 
comfort and ease is always of short duration. 
While here they participated in a victorious en- 
gagement against Gen. Forrest, at Lafayette, and 
pursued him to Cold Water, Miss., returning to 
Memphis New Year's, 1864. January 28th they 
left their beautiful camping ground, and boarded 
a steamer, in company with a small fleet starting 
to Yicksburg, where they arrived on the 30th 


instant. In February they accompanied the fa- 
mous " Sherman raid " throuajh Mississippi, in 
which the railroads centering at Jackson and Can- 
ton were effectually destroyed. They reached 
Vicksburg again March 4th, having been absent 
about one month, during which they had traveled 
three hundred miles. In this expedition, so se- 
verely danaging to the rebel cause as to give last- 
ing honor to the men who participated in it, the 
soldiers saw some very hard times. The boys of 
company E were unused to marching; their knap- 
sacks were heavy ; they seldom drew more than, 
half rations, often not so much, and for two or 
three days, in the eastern part of the State, lived 
mostly upon parched corn. Nevertheless, they 
had pleasant weather and good roads, plenty of 
water and the privilege of confiscating whatever 
they found in the country fit to eat, and company 
E knew as well how to use this privilege as any 
company in the expedition. 

Six days after their return they set out — under 
command of Gen, A. J, Smith — upon an expedi- 
tion up Red River. On their way they halted at 
Semmesport, marched across the country, and af- 
ter a hard fight captured Fort De Russey and 
three hundred prisoners, March 14th, On the 
21st of the same month they M'"ere sent to Pine 
Hill, La., twenty miles from Alexandria, where 
they captured three hundred prisoners, four pieces 


of artillery, etc. They then returned to Red 
River, went on up to Pleasant Hill, where they 
participated in a severe battle on the 8th and 
9th of April, 1864, under Gen. Banks. On the 
first day our forces were repulsed, but on the 
second day Gen. Smith checked the rebels and 
drove them back. The 89tli made a charge, cap- 
turing one hundred prisoners. The loss of the 
regiment was six killed and forty-nine wounded — 
company E one killed and Jive wounded. From 
this place, very strangely, a retreat was ordered 
by Gen. Banks. Of this movement Capt. Winters 
wrote in his diary as follows : 

' ' "Why General Banks ordered a retreat is a mystery to all. 
Here was the battle-field covered with the dead and wounded 
rebels, neither of them taken care of. Here were thousands 
of small arms left on the field, sufficient to arm several thousand 
men, eleven pieces of artillery dismounted or disabled. This 
had been done by our men, but we must leave all for the 
rebels to gather up again. Our own dead were not even buried. 
A thousand groans and ten thousand curses were hurled 
against Banks." 

The army fell back to Grand Ecore and then to 
Alexandria, skirmishing almost constantly — 
reaching Alexandria April 26th, just one month 
after they left it for Shreveport. They continued 
their course down Red River till May 7th, when 
a severe engagement took place, in which the reb- 
els were defeated, company E losing one mortally 
wounded. May ITth they reached Semmesport 

w "^^m. 

coMPAjrr H. 261 

again, and the next day another battle was fought, 
in which the 89th lost seven killed and forty-four 
wounded — company E two killed and two wound- 
ed. May 2J:th the regiment arrived at Yicksburg, 
where they camped till June 4th, when they 
started up the Mississippi. They reached Mem- 
phis June 9th, 186i, since which time they have 
been engaged in the important raids of General 
Smith. The fortunes of war have rested heavily 
upon company E, but in every battle and through 
all hardships they have exhibited true courage 
and fortitude. Their record is a highly honora- 
ble one, and will remain a monument to their 


Captain, John W. Headington, promoted to major June 1, '64. 
Lieutenant, Gideon Ratlibun, wounded at Missionary Ridge, 

November 25, 18633 
Second Lieutenant, Stephen B. H. Shanks, wounded at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, November 25, 1863.J 


Isaac N. Frazee, Eli Vore, Edwin Rowlett. 

William F. Ware, died at Colli ersville, Tenn., April 4, 1864. 
David J. Moore, wounded at Missionary Ridge Nov. 25, 1863. 


Thomas Koons, died at Grand Junction, Tenn., Feb. 2, 1863. 

Jacob Haviland, wounded at Missionary Ridge Nov. 25, 1863. 

Solomon M. Barnes, promoted to sergeant May, 1863, for good 

conduct ; received a slight wound at Dallas May 28. 


262 coMPAirr h. 

Sanford B. Couldren. Liberty Patterson. 

Andrew J. Thomas, discharged Nov. 7, '63, at Mound City. 

Jacob Bosworth, discharged at ]Memphis, March 22, 1863. 

Wm. Fifer, slight wound at Mission Eidge Nov. 25. 

Henry Hammons, drummer. Aquilla K. Mills, fifer, died — . 

Wm. Wiley, fifer. 


Samuel Allman, slight wound November 25. 

Joseph S. Antles, Jonathan Armantrout. 

John F. Bowden, promoted to first lieutenant company B, 

11th Indiana cavalry, October, 1863. 
Ephraim Byrd, died at home August 24, 1863. 
George D. Borden, regimental harness maker. 
Daniel Bickel, died at Memphis October 23, 1863. . 
Samuel A. Blake, died at Memphis June 10, 1863. 
James Baker, William Brunuer, 

Nathan Bubmire, George H. Bunnell, 

Lewis B. Bunnell, James M. Bair. 

Jonathan Cain, discharged May 26, '63, at Colliersville, Teun. 
Charles W. Caster, promoted corporal Jan. 1, '64, for gallant 

conduct; died at Bellefonte Station, Ala., Feb. 19, '64. 
John M. Collett, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 25, '63. 
Mulford C. Carl, wounded at Chattahoochie River July 4, '64. 
James Cartright, died at Memphis Nov. 29, 1863. 
Jesse Collins, Joseph L. Carl, William Cherry. 

Joseph Dehofif, died at St. Louis Dec. 20, 1862. 
Amos Ducket, George Fritzinger, Richard Fitzgerald; 
Henry Flooding, Joshua W. Flood, Abner J. Frazee. 
John Flooding, killed at Mission Ridge Nov. 25, 1863. 
Obed Gibson, died at La Grange, Tenn., Jan. 15, 1863. 
Henderson Graves, wounded at Dallas, Ga., May 28. 
Abram Geiger, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 25. 
Daniel D. Ginger, Stephen M. Hughes, 

Wm. W. Horner, George B. Haffner, 

Wm. H. Hester, James Hoad. 

Levi P. Hilton, died at Vicksbui-g Sept. 28, 1863. 


Henry C. Holtsapple, died at Bellefonte Station, Feb. 28, '64, 

James D. Hardy, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 9, 1863. 

Caleb Haviland, discharged November 36, 1863. 

Joseph C. Hawkins, hospital steward. 

Thomas H. Ilijff, died at St. Louis August 5, 1863. 

James Jones. 

Noah Kunce, died at Memphis Nov. 26, 1863. 

Joseph W. Lafollett, died at LaQrange, Tenn., Feb. 37, '63. 

John C. Morris, died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 18, '63. 

Jacob W. McCroskey, wagon master. 

James A. Mason, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 35. 

J. W. Merchant, died at Colliersville, Tenn., May 7, '63. 

Lafayette Morgan, died at Scottsboro, Ala. , Dec. 87, '63. 

John M. Mills, died at LaGrange, Tenn., Feb. 7, '63. 

David Mills, hospital steward at Indianapolis. 

Cassius B. Mills, discharged at Colliersville May 36, '63. 

Edward Nicholas, Elias A. Porter, 

Joshua Poling, Charles Plummer, 

Isaiah Parkison, John J. Rathbun, 

Alexander W. Ruhl, Charles W. Rarrick, 

Ezekiel Rowlett, discharged at Indianapolis Aug. 35, '63. 

Noah Ruhl, promoted corporal Dec. 25, '63. 

Eli Rines, Adam Shultz, 

Jacob Sutton, discharged at Memphis March 16, '63. 

Henry Spahr, died at Camp Sherman August 18, '63. 

Solon C. Stratton, died on Tallahatchie River Dec. 2, '62. 

Henry C. Staley, Taylor Towle, 

Granville C. Tucker, Robie M. Towle, 

Alvah J. Tucker, wounded at Dallas, Ga. , May 38, '64. ' 

Jesse Thompson, Samuel Wilkison, 

John Westfall, David Wolf, 

Joseph B. Whitenack, 

James G. Walker, promoted corporal May, 1863 ; killed at 

Mission Ridge Nov. 85, '53. 
Cyrus J. Wilson, died at Snider's Bluff June 36, '63. 
Jacob West, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 80, '63. 



Total 103 

Discharged 7 

Died 25 

Company H was recruited in August, 1862 ; 
left Portland September 9 th ; reported at Wabash, 
when it organized by electing the following offi- 
cers : Captain, John W. Headington ; First Lieu- 
tenant, Gideon Rathbun ; Second Lieutenant Ste- 
phen B. H. Shanks. They were mustered into 
the three years' service at Lidianapolison the 23d 
of September. Early in October they were fur- 
loughed home for a few days. On the 11th of 
J^Tovember they went by rail to Cairo; thence by 
steamboat to Memphis, where they joined Grant's 
army and aconipanied him on his grand expedi- 
tion through Mississippi in the fall of 1862. They 
were as far South as Yocknapatafa. On their re- 
turn they reached Grand Junction January 10th, 
1863, in the vicinity of which they remained dur- 
ing the winter. 

On the return march to Holly Springs the 
company began to feel the hardships of war. 
Their rations failed, and they lived as they could, 
some of the time on raw or parched corn, and but 
little of that. A member of the company (a lad 
of sixteen years) writes thus: "Many murmur 
and say they have notliing to eat and must starve. 
For my part I find it easy enough to get along — 


if one only takes a little care. I had an ear of 
corn for my breakfast and put another ear in my 
pocket for ray supper." 

In March, 1863, they moved to Colliersville, 
Tennessee, where they remained, doing guard 
duty and scouting until June 5th, when they pro- 
ceeded to Yicksburg and joined the grand siege 
of that city. After its surrender they went with 
the force which drove the rebel Johnston from 
Jackson, Mississippi. 

They spent nearly three months in camp on Big 
Black River, and late in September proceeded up 
the river to Memphis, thence by land through 
Northern Mississippi and Alabama to Chatta- 
nooga, Tennessee. The march from Memphis to 
Chattanooga was long and severe, occupying forty 
days, the distance being about three hundred 
miles. The men endured the trip pretty well, 
however; many of them even gaining in l^ealth 
and strength during the long and tiresome jour- 
ney. On Lookout Mountain, and in the region 
overlooking and threatening Chattanooga and 
Grant's gallant army, lay Bragg's rebel hosts. 
Hardly had Sherman's brave troops taken a little 
rest until the combined forces made a fierce and 
persistent attack on the enemy. Up the heights 
of Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain the 
resistless heroes charged, killed and captured 
great numbers and drove the rest in confusion for 

266 J. C. HAWKINS. 

many miles into Georgia. In this fierce battle of 
three days Company H took an active and honor- 
able part, in which they lost two killed and eleven 
wounded, mostly severely, including both Lieu- 
tenants, The number engaged was thirty-two, in- 
cluding ofhcers. The standard bearer was shot 
down. Private J. C. Hawkins seized the falling 
banner, waved it detiantly to the foe, rallied the 
wavering columns, and bore it triumphantly to 
the end of the fight. For this and other gallant 
conduct he was publicly complimented, and the 
ofiicers of the regiment, through Chaplain Brouse, 
presented to him an ofiicer's uniform. 

On the 26th of November they started in pur- 
suit of the retreating rebels, and continued as far 
as Graysville, Georgia, where they burned a large 
mill, and tore up and destroyed the railroad track 
and bridges. They were then selected as part of 
the force to march to the relief of Knoxville. In 
that expedition of more than three weeks the men 
marched day after day, sometimes till midnight, 
half naked, bare-footed, without rations or cook- 
ing utensils, yet almost without a murmur. Ar- 
rived at Maysville, they learned that the rebels 
had run, and they returned by way of Chatta- 
nooga and Bridgeport, to Scottsboro, Alabama, 
where they arrived December 27th, 1S63. 

The march to the relief of Knoxville was one 
of peculiar and excessive hardships. In the bat- 


tie of Missionary Ridge, and tlie subsequent pur- 
suit, occupying live days, the company had left or 
thrown away clothes, equi]3age, etc., and they had 
almost no blankets, tents, overcoats, or cooking 
utensils. Some melted their canteens apart, and 
used them to bake bread upon. They subsisted 
on what they could obtain by the way, which was 
insufficient to satisfy their hunger, and though it 
was December, many were bare-footed and with- 
out blankets; yet the brave and noble men bore 
these hardships even with cheerfulness. The fol- 
lowing letter, written to the church of which the 
writer was a member, shows the spirit of some of 
these soldiers : 

Battle field near Jackson, Mississippi, ) 
July 12th, 1864— Sabbath morning. ) 

Dear Brethren : — I cannot but contrast the diflference 
between our situations at this moment. You are preparing 
to worship God in your little church, and to listen to the 
words of " Peace on earth and good will to men," while I, 
your brother, am lying close to a trembling earth, made so by 
the whizzing of balls and shells aimed for our destruction ! 
You no doubt will be interested in the character of my reflec- 
tions and feelings in the circumstances. 

After singing " The Lord my Shepherd is," " From every 
stormy wind that blows," and " On the mountain top appear- 
ing," I committed myself, my family, my brethren and hiy 
country to God's keeping. The result is a calmness and 
resignation tliat is almost surprising to myself. How far I 
shall be able to maintain this state of feeling of course I can- 
not tell, but I trust that I shall be enabled to find strength in 


the promise, " The Lord is a present help in every time of 
need," and " As thy day is, so shall thy strength be ;" and if 
not a sparrow falls to the ground without our Heavenly 
Father, why need I be afraid ? 

Now, brethren, as it regards the principles we have con- 
tended for : In tlie face of death I believe they are Tight ! I 
have lived by them and stood up for them in life ; and if it 
please God that I should now die, I shall die with the full 
confidence that piety to God and humanity to man are the 
sum and substance of Christ's holy religion. I exhort you, 
therefore, to stand fast by them — " Stand up for Jesus !" and 
though we may always be unpopular among men. yet "it 
pays" to have the consciousness that all is well when there is 
danger in everj'' step, and one looks death square in the face. 
(We are looking every moment for an order to charge.) 

Farewell. May the peace of God, that passeth all under- 
standing, be with you to tJie end. 

Your brother, * * * 

Early in January, 186i, the reo;iment was again 
set to guarding railroads, and continued until Ma_y 
1st, when it joined the grand army now before 
Atliinta. In this campaign it has participated in 
engagements atResaca, Dallas, New Hope Church 
and Kenesaw Mountain, and several have been 
wounded. Their losses have been heavy through- 
out the war. In sixteen different places and 
seven different Stages, their "dead ones brave" 
are' lying. The battle-scarred veterans of com- 
pany H have made a record which while they 
live will be their honor, and when they die will 
be their glorious epitaph. 

* COMPANY F. 269 


Captain, Dr. Christopher S. Arthur, promoted to surgeon. 
First Lieutenant, John S. Stanton, promoted to captain Aug 

20, 1862 — wounded at Chicliamauga. 
Second Lieutenant, Abraliam C. Rush, promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Aug. 20, 18G2, resigned Dec. 22, 1862. 


Orderly, Jesse T. Underwood, promoted to second lieutenant 

Aug. 20, 1862, resigned Feb., 1863. 
Guy W. McGriff, promoted to first lieutenant Dec. 23, 1863, 

resigned April 16, 1864. 
Joseph Lewis, promoted to orderly Dec. 23, 1862 ; to second 

lieutenant Feb., 1863. 
Justice Green, died at home Nov. 1863. 
John Hardy, jun., wounded at Kenesaw Mountain, 
Oliver H. P. Hammitt, transferred to gunboat. 


Henry V. Walling, wounded William Arbaugh, 

at Kenesaw Mountain, Jas. Stewart, killed at Chicka- 
Henry Getz, mauga, 

John P. Boyd, died Nov. 1862 Solomon Dehofi", 
David Henry, Charles A. Black, 

Charles E. Bennett, died at Charles W. Robbins, 
Castillian Springs Nov. '62 Edward J. Haynes. 

Alexander Hyde, fifer, wounded at Kenesaw Mountain. 
William R. Miller, drummer, discharged. 


Charles S. Butterworth, John McKinstry, discharged — 

Albert Biirris, died before reaching home. 

James W. Binegar, wounded George W. McCartney, 
at Missionary Ridge, William W. McLellan, 

Lyman Brown, discharged, Perry Odell. 


Elias F. Baird, died at Chat- James Porter, killed at Kene- 

tanooga, saw Mountain Jnne 18, '64 

Aaron Baker, Mailon I. Paxsou, 

Thomas J. Cartwright, Jesse J. Russell, died Jan. '63. 

Joseph A. Craig, Seth Kegester, died at Chatta- 

Harvey Collins, nooga, 

Francis A. CoUett, David E. Reilej^ wounded at 

Samuel W. Di.xon, Chickaraauga, 

Eli Dehoff, discharged — died Enos T. Reed, discharged, 

alter reaching home, Robt. Reusenberg, discharged, 

Samuel M. Elliott, Stephen Shelton, discharged, 

Samuel Force, Alexander Strain, 

Timothy F. Fait, killed at James A. Smith, 

Chickamanga Sept. 1863 George Shirk, died Jan. 1863, 
Charles L. Fullmer, wounded John Shirk, wounded at Chick- 

at Chickamauga, amauga, 

David Farris, discharged, Charles A. Stephens, promoted 
Lewis Ginger, detailed at brig- corporal, and detailed as 

adeh'dq'rs as mt'd orderly ordnance serg't Jan. 1864, 

Lilburn Gray, discharged, Jacob Schmidt, died Jan. 1863 
Enos T.Hoskins, died Nov. '62 Everett W. Sullivan, wounded 
Nathan B. Hickman, disch'd at Chickamauga — disch'd, 

Geo. W. Hammitt, promoted Charles E. Stanton, died at 

ord. ser't Feb. 12, 1864, Ringgold, Georgia, 

Joseph Heminger, detailed in William F. Smith, captured 

Engineer Corps Dec. '62 Dec. 1863, 

David Heminger, detailed in Spencer Smith, 

Engineer Corps Dec. '62 John W. Sage, wounded at 
William Heminger, wounded Chickamauga, 

at Chickamauga Sept. '63 T. L. Stratton, transferred to 
John Hardy, sen., discharged Co. E, 89th Indiana, 

Moses Hardy, died, Cornelius Thompson, detached 

Charles Hughes, to Engineer Corps, 

Ephraim Jellison, William W. Thorp, 

Thomas C. Keen, discharged William T. Underwood, disch. 

April, 1864, William Vance, died Nov. '62 


George H. Kiusey, killed at William C. Vail, 

Chickamaiiga, ■ John Walters, wounded at 

Henry Kuntz, discharged, Chickamauga, 

Richard Loyd, killed at Mis- Jacob H. Wolford, 

sionary Ridge, Jas. M. Wolford, died Jan. '63 

Isaiah M. Larick, wounded at Henry F. West, 

Kenesaw Mountain, Edward J. West, died Jan. '63 

Francis M. Larick, Uriah Williams, died, 

Robert Michaels, Jasper N. Whitaker, 

Francis R. Moon, Samuel vVibel. 

John Meredith, died Jan. 1863Williani H. Wilson, deserted 
Aaron J. Mendenhall, died to 13th Ohio, to which he 

Jan. 1863, formerly belonged. 


Whole number 99 

Died 34 

Transferred, Resigned and Discharged 19 

Company F was recruited in July, 1862, by A. 
C. Rush ; left Portland on tlie 31st of the same 
month ; the next day went into camp at Wabash; 
was assigned to the 75th regiment, and was mus- 
tered into the three years' service August 20th, 
and in two days were at Louisville. They were 
then, under orders of Gen. Dumont, sent to several 
points in Kentucky in search of the rebel Mor- 
gan. They visited Lebanon, Shepardsville and 
Lebanon Junction, etc., and then returned to 
Louisville on the 22d of September ; thence went 
to Elizabethtown, and agai^ returned to Louis- 
ville. On the 6th of October they left this city 
the third time and went to Frankfort, Versailles 


and Bowling Green ; thence to Castillian Springs, 
Tennessee, where tliey arrived JSTovember 28th, 
1862. Here they lost, by disease, four of their 
members. Remaining here nearly one month, 
they set out for Murfreesboro, which point they 
reached January 6th, 1863. They remained at 
this place nearly six months, during which they 
lost by death eight and by being discharged nine. 
On the 23d of June they were once more ordered 
to march. At Hoover's Gap they found the en- 
emy, but after considerable skirmishing he tied. 
Their next visits "were to Tullahoma, Winfred, 
Dechard and University Heights on the Cumber- . 
land Mountains ; crossed Lookout Mountain and 
Pond Springs on the 14th of September, and on 
the 19th engaged in that terrible struggle at 
Chickamauga, in which the 75th regiment lost 
nearly one-third of its members andj company E 
three killed and seven wounded. In this fight 
they were in the 2d brigade, dth division, com- 
manded by Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds ; IMh 
Army Corps, Maj. Gen. Geo. H. Thomas. The 
brigade commander, Col. King, was killed, and 
the command then devolved upon Col. Milton S. 
Robinson, of the 75th regiment. On the 20th 
they again encountered the enemy, a severe en- 
gagement followed, in which Capt. J. S. Stanton 
was wounded, and Lieut. Underwood commanded 
the company. Two days later they retired with 


the army to Chattanoga. The rebels having cut 
off their communications by raih-oad, they were 
on short rations for three months. At this place 
three of company F died of disease. On the 25th 
of November they participated in the fierce con- 
test at Mission Ridge, in which they lost one kill- 
ed and two wounded. Lieut. Lewis commanded 
the company. From that time forward they were 
engaged in the great campaign in that department. 
On the 18th of June, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, 
they were in the front, and company F lost three 
in killed and four wounded. In November, 1863, 
Capt. Stanton was detailed on the recruiting ser- 
vice; Lieut. McGriff detailed as ordnance officer 
on Gen. Baird's staff, and the company was com- 
manded by Lieut. Jos. Lewis. 

Since the opening of Gen. Sherman's campaign 
company F has been most of the time in front, 
gallantly performing all duties required of it. It 
has met the enemy in some of the severest con- 
tests of the war. Its large list of noble men who 
have been killed and wounded on all these occa- 
sions, attests its uniform bravery and deeds of im- 
perishable glory. "We leave it looking from the 
front into the besieged city of Atlanta. 

Comj^any B, 11th Indiana Cavalry, was recruit- 
ed by R. C. Harper, Elias Shewalter and J. F. 
Bowden, in October, 1863. 

On the 10th of November they were mus- 


tered into the three-^^ears' service at Indianapolis. 
Mr. Bowden was appointed First Lieutenant. 
They were then sent to Kokomo, Indiana, to fill 
up the compan}'^, and on the 21st of December 
Mr. She waiter was elected Captain, and Mr. Har- 
per Second Lieutenant. On the 23d of January, 
1864, they went to Indiana^Dolis, where they 
waited until May for horses. They were then 
sent to aSTashville, Tennessee, unmounted, where 
they voluntarily chose infantry duty to idleness, 
and have since served in that capacity. On the 
1st of June they were sent to guard the railroad 
running from Stevenson to Huntsville, Alabama. 
Captain Shewalter, with one hundred and sixty- 
four men, was. placed to guard Mud Creek Bridge, 
eight miles from Stevenson. Lieutenant Bowden 
was detailed to command Company A of the same 
regiment. They have been in the service only a 
short time, but are ready whenever called upon 
to imitate the bravery of the veteran soldiers from 
Jay. The following is a list of the company : 


Captain, Elias Shewalter. 

First Lieutenant, John F. Bowden, was in battles of Vicks- 
burg and Jackson, Mississippi, in Company H, 100th In- 
diana, commissioned first lieutenant in the 11th Cavalry, 
Nov. 11th, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant, R. C. Harper. 


Orderly, Samuel F. Hiatt, 



Quartermaster, Aaron L. Somers, 
Commissary, Thomas W. Burk, 
1st, James A. Hutchinson, 4th, Isaac M. McLellan, 
2d John W. Hall, 5th, John W. Cubbison. 

3d John Hindman, 


1 st, John Vickrey, 
2d, Caleb M. Ducket, 
3d, Elias H. West, 
4th, Henry Elbert, 
5th, Raleigh Bowden, 

William Hyde, Bugler, 
Joseph G. Harter, " 
John N. Sullivan, Farrier. 

William Andrew, 

George N. Adams, 

John Armitage, 

Banford P. Burk, was in the 
battle of Willson' s Creek 
and Belmont, Mo., Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Chap- 
lin Hills, Stone River, in 
Co. L, 4th Iowa Cavalry. 

James Bowden, 

Theodore Baily, 

Marcus Bosworth, 

George W. Bishop, 

Francis Bickle, 

George W. Bush, was in the 
battle oftRiclimond, Ky. 
wounded in hips. Served 
eleven months in Co. F, 
69th Indiana. 

6th, Ambrose Somers, was in 
Co. H, 12t.h Indiana Regi- 
ment, at Antietam, 
7th, David J. Kelley, 
8th, William R. Frederick. 

John Cookerly, Blacksmith. 
Henry Carpenter, Teamster. 
Joseph S. Tucker, Saddler. 


Albert P. Loomis, 

Robert Lanning, 

Peter W. B. Loy, 

James M. Moore, 

Henry E. McCartney, 

John Manson, 

Daniel Martin, 

John Myron, died March 26th 
1864, at City Hospital, In- 

Wiley S. McLaughlin, 

Dennis Matkins, 

William Moccabee, 

John Mays, 

-William McLelland, 

James W. Nicholson, 

William Nelson, 

Asahel Oler, 

Thomas Pingry 



Isaac Barns, 
William W. Bair, 
"William H. Cheneworth, 
James J. Eagy, 
John A. Garringer, 
Elisha Gray, 
Abraham Gray, 
Richard Green, 
James M. Hammitt, 
Monroe Hinclman, 
William Harter, 
Eli Houck, 
Benjamin Herrald, 
William S. Hyde, 
Jacob Hutzler, 
Johnson Houck, 
Joseph Jenkins, 
Albert N. Jack, 
George Kimball, 
Thomas D. Kerns, 
Joseph Knapp, 
Byron W. King, 
William Kesler, 
George W. Loy, 

Died— 3.. 

Zachariah Plumer, 

David Rowlett, 

William Richardson, 

Silas Siders, 

Daniel Sanders, 

William Schlosser, 

Thomas W. Sullivan, 

Tilson Smith, 

John Sims, 

Aaron Sanders, 

John Shearer, 

Samuel Shaler, 

John Stults, 

Stephen Skinner, 

F. J. Stover, 

William Stout, 

John N. Tucker, 

James F. Thompson, 

Francis Viniug, died in City 

Hospital at Indianapolis, 

April 3, 1864, 
Michael Wagner, 
Samuel Walker, 
Jacob Walker. 
Total— 98 

Regimental officers from Jay County in the 
Seventh Indiana Cavalry Regiment : 

Colonel, John P. C. Shanks, was on Gen. Fremont's staff in 

Surgeon, William Freeman. 
Chaplain, James Marquis. « 

Members of Company E, Seventh Indiana 
Cavalry from Jay Coimty : 



Captain, David T. Skinner. 

Second Lieutenant, James Sloan, promoted to first lieutenant. 


Orderly William M. Skinner, 4tli, James S. Stansberry. 
3d, Barton B. Jenkins, 


Morgan L. Gray, John K. Tetters, 

Judson Skinner, died William Underwood. 


John Adair, Jerome Hiatt, 

William Adair, Jas. C. Jay, Hospital Steward, 

Sanford P. Ames, Emanuel Knepper, 

John W. Babb, Joseph Knepper, 

Joseph Blackburn, Eli Lehr, 

John G. W. Clevenger, Benjamin F. Paxson, 

James G. Cloud, John Q. Paxson, 

Daniel B. Crow, died Coston Porter, 

Abijah Crow, John Roberts, 

Humphrey Davis, John Schneider, 

John H. Elliott, William H. Smith, 

David Farris, Daniel H. Van Camp, killed 

Obadiah Gardner, died in battle of Brice's Cross 

Isaac Griffith, Roads, Miss., June 10, 1864 

Samuel I. Gray, William Van Skyhawk, 

George Haley, John Ware, 

Richard D. Hoover, Euos Walker, 

George W. Hambleton, Morris P. Wood. 


Regimental Officers 3 

Company E 43 

Died 4 

When the call was made in April, 1864, for 
volunteers to serve for one hundred, days, recr.ui.t- 

378 one-hundred-days' men. 

ing was immediately commenced in Jay, Ou the 
20th of May the following company left Portland 
for Indianapolis. Remaining at Camp Carrington 
a few days, tliey were then sent to Fort Sands, 
Kentucky, thirty-five miles south of Louisville, 
where they are now located. Rev. N. T. Petty- 
cord, a Methodist minister on the New Corydon 
circuit, and P. S. Loofbourrow, editor of the Jay 
Torch Lights went as privates in this company. 
The editor's wife, Mrs. Ann E. Loofbourrow, and 
Miss Rebecca Adams, took entire charge of the 
paper, editing it, setting the type, and doing all 
other work required to issue the paper. They did 
this work with a promptness, too, which many of 
their more pretending brothers of the press would 
do well to imitate. 

Captain, A. C. Rush. 
First Lieutenant, F. R. Stratton. 
Second Lieutenant, G. W. Loofbourrow. 


Orderly, Jacob Bosworth, jr. 3d, Andrew Sunday, 
1st, A. W. Allen, 4th, Samuel Eagy. 

2d, Isaac Simmons, 


1st, S. R. Bell, 5th, John Pipe, 

2d, G. W. Christman, Gth, Joseph Jeleff, 

3d, Henry Cristler, 7th, J. J. M. Lafollett, 

4th, Abraham Byrd, 8th, Alfred Shepherd. 



J. H. Adams, 
G. B. Anderson, 
T. J. Ashdill, 
Christian Burris, 
William Beamer, 
J. Binegar, 
Lewis Bockoven, 
Wesley Cristler, 

E. F. Calderwood, 
Hiram Carson, 
W. R. Curtis, 

J. H. Deffenbaugh, 
B. L. Dewees, 
Frank Fetters, 
Silas Glover, 
J. W. Grigsby, 
David Galloway, 
William Grfeen, 
Lewis D. Hall, 
William Harness, 
B. M. Howell, 
Theodore Johnston, 
Charles Lewis, 
P. S. Loofbourrow, 

F. R. Lewis, 

G. W. Metzuer, 
E. E. Moon, 

Geo. G. Montgomery, 

pany Clerk, 
E. J. Mendenhall, 


James Marsh, 
H. McLaughlin, 
Joseph McLellan, 
Abraham Morrical, 
C. A. May, 
M. C. McDugal, 
John Miller, 
H Milligan, 
Jesse Milliken, 
H. Owen, 

William Parmenter, 
Jeremiah Phillips, 
W. B. Pingry, 
N. T. Pettycord, 
Daniel Rising, 
Alexander Rayn, 
A. Rook, 
William Robbins, 
Jacob Sunday, 
J. Snider, 
George Steckle, 
J. H. Stratton, 
J. Smith, 
Stephen Shelton, 
Thomas West, 
William Walter, 
A. B. Woodward, 
Com- J. Watkins, 
J. Watts, 
J. L. Whaley. 

Total— 75 

The following one hundred days' men were 
enlisted at Camden by Capt. Geo. W. Fairchilds, 
who, uniting with a squad from Bluffton, went to 



Indianapolis, and wliile the officers were at home 
getting recruits to till the company, by order of 
the Adjutant General they were disbanded, and, 
with one exception, were distributed through the 
companies forming the 138th regiment, Colonel 
Shannon : 

Thomas W. Bennett, 
John Brandenburg, 


Fiiiley Farris, 
Hii-am G. Fulmer, 
Theodore Grissell, 
Hiram L. Grissell, 
Ensley L. Gray, 
Alouzo P. Hughes, 
Nicholas Henizer, 


Gabriel C. Johnson, 
Levi M.Johnson, 
Thomas Jones, 
William Keagle, ^ 
George W. Keagle, 

William Mendenhall, 

Mordicai jNIorris, 

Abraham Morical, lo9th Regt. 

Stephin Ollum, 

James A. Pugh, 

Allen T. Flace, 

Benjamin F. Paxson, 

Joseph E. Paxson, 

Israel A. Place, 

Frank Russell, 

Samuel Shaffer, 

John Thompson, 

Theodore Underwood, 

Joseph Wliite, 

John W. Williams. 

•Total :31 

The following one hundred days' soldier are in 
the ISitli Indiana regiment : 

Matthew Atkinson, John J. Hawkins, member of 

John Brewster, non-commissioned staff, 

J. W. Daugherty, Smith. 

William C. Dye, Total 6 

Total one-hundred-days' men 112 



[The * designates those re-enlisted.] 

Capt. John L. Reeves, promoted major May 22, '64. 


Joseph H. Brewster, killed by railroad accident at Union City 

June, 1862. 
Abram J. Brake, wounded at Chickamauga. 
John W. McKay, transferred to Invalid Corps. 
Nelson White,* W. H. McLaughlin. 


W. H. Frasher, died at home March, 1862. 

Wm. B. Simmons, discharged January, 1864. 

Geo. W. Blake, discharged September, 1863. 

Wm. P. Beard, wounded at Chickamauga. 

Wm. N. Strader, discharged July, 1863. 

Edwin H. Snellbaker, killed at Chickamauga. 

J. Q. A. Andrews, G. W. Butcher, J. W. Butcher, 

Jason 0. Brewster, wagoner. 


Lewis Beard,* right arm amputated, wounded at Altoona. 

Samuel Eagy, discharged September, 1863. 

George Ehrhart, wounded* five times at Chickamauga. 

Hemeu Emberson,* wounded at Chickamauga. 

John G. McLaughlin, wounded at Chickamauga. 

Francis M. McLaughlin, discharged. 

Henry McLaughlin, died at Ashland, Ky., March 2d, 1863. 

Lorenzo Stults, detailed Pioneer Corps, April, 1863. 

John Eagy, Hiram McLoughlin. 


Whole number .26 

Discharged and transferred 7 

Died 4 


282 COMPANY 0. 


Sergeant Henry Ammerman, promoted and resigned in 1861. 
Corporal George AUman, mortally wounded at Antietam. 
Corporal Isaac N. Frazee, discharged ; re-enlisted in compa- 
ny H, lOOth Indiana. 
James W. Crowell, discharged. 
David Ganinger, commissary sergeant, died. 
David V. Garringer, re-enlisted ; wounded at S. Mountain. 
Jonathan Gray, discharged. 

James Ham, killed at South Mountain Sept. 14, '63. 
George L. Moore, re-enlisted; promoted at Antietam. 
John Nixon, discharged. 

Isaac R. Rathbun, wounded at Antietam ; discharged. 
G. R. Rathbun, discharged. 

Wm. Williamson, wounded at Antietam ; discharged. 
John Hester, wounded at South Mountain ; arm amputated. 
Thomas Bonfill, killed in 1864. 
E. G. Moore, at home sick. 
Amos Whiteneck, killed in 1864. 

Nathan B. Maxwell, enlisted April 18, 1861, in co. E, 8th Ind.; 
re-enlisted in 19th ; died at Washington City Dec. 12, '63. 
George M. Rathbun, discharged. 
Alexander Burk, killed at Gettysburg. 
Jackson Reeves, Valentine Thompson, 

C. C. Rider, wounded, Isaac Cherry, wounded, 

Albert CoUett, wounded, Thomas Barr. 


Whole number 36 

Died 7 


Lieutenant 'Robert W. Nickum. 
Lieutenant William Van Camp. 


John Isenliart, died at Nashville July 2, 1864. 
John S. McLaughlin, James Williams, 

Simon Bunis, John J. Campbell, 

John H. Smith, William White, 

Rev. Wm. Smith, Thomas B. Hill, 

Wm. P. Wehrly, Benjamin Emberson, 

David H. Dutro. 

Total 14 

The following persons, from Richland Town- 
ship, are also in the One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Indiana : 

William Current, Alva Johnson, 

Abraham Coons, Abraham Keesear, 

John Cuness, William Maitle, 

Jacob Daugherty, James Metlen, 

Thomas Daugherty, William Powell, 

Thomas Dragoo, Allen W. Roberts, 

Alva Evans, James Smith, 

James W. Evans, James Stawford, 

Amos Hall, Samuel Taylor, 

James Hayes, Mikle, 

Jacob Hesser, Samuel Wilson, 

James Hpppis, Total 23 


R. B. Castle, William Matchet, 

H. P. Castle, Lewis O'Neil, 

William Clough, killed near Ezekiel Clough, 

Vicksburg, Levi Matchet, 
Calvin Diggs, taken prisoner Peter Matchet, 

at Chickamauga, W. S. Pinney, 

Enoch Fields, David Reed. 

Total ,....12 



M. D. Lockhart, Co. B, killed Benjamin Kemp, Co. E: 

at Chickamauga, George Swank, " 

Samuel B. Smith, Co. B, Alexander Hutchinson, Co. E, 
W. M. Shrach, Co. B, wound- wounded at Chickamauga, 

ed at Resaca, Henry Hutchinson, Co. E. 

J. W. Coulson, Co. B, John J. Brown, 

Charles Emerson, Co. E, Harris Black, Co. H. 

Total 11 


George W. Crandall, George W. McKinney, wound- 
James W. Evans, shot three ed twice at Shiloh, 

times at Shiloh, W. G. Sutton, 

Thomas Guston, Co. E, Benj . Shields, died Oct. 3d , 
"W. H. Hubbard, 1861 ;— first death among 

Charles "W. Lambert, the soldiers from Jay Co. 

Charles F. Losh, John W. Thomas. 

James E. Phillips, Total 11 


John Butcher, Elisha H, Hunter, . 

Martin Butcher, Reuben Jones, 

Crabtree, Metzner, 

Harvey Denney, died James Smith, 

Jasper Denney, Oliver Wells. 

Franklin Denney, Total 11 

Deserted not given above 4 


Joseph Darst, 2d Ohio Art. Ner Gaunt, 8th Ind. 
C.Hatmaker, Co. D, 85th Ohio Cyrus Grice, 87th Ohio 
Robt.M.. Mann, 2d Ohio Art. John Grice, " 

Firmen Andrews, 81st Ohio Nathan Higgins, 47th Ind. 



David Stahl, 6th Incl. Cav. 

Geo. Chame, " " 

John BufBngton, 48th Ind. 

G. A.Sommers, Co.E, 88th lud. 

Charles W. Cline, — Ohio 

J.W.Deuney, 87tli Ohio, died. 

Asa Tharp, 17th Ohio 

T. Theurcr, 8th Ohio Bat. died 

Samuel Buther, 2d Ohio Art. 

J. T. Sncllbaker, " 

Jas. M. Anderson, 47th Ohio. 

Jas. Albnan, Co. A, 83d Ohio, 
taken prisoner at Chick- 
amauga, still held. 

David M. Bell, 47th Ind. 

Alpheus Bailey, 13th Ind. 

W. J. Bickel, 47lh Ind. 

M. P. Boggs, Co. D, 66th Ohio, 
wounded at Port Repub- 
lic and discharged. 

William T. Boggs, Co. D, 66th 
Ohio, wounded at Gettys- 
burg — re-enlisted. 

Hiram Bromagem, 8th Ind. 

John Cring, 90th Ind. 

Henry Crabtree, 57th Ohio 

Johiel Crabtree, " 

Joseph P. Carder, 19th Ind. 

Malia V. Coons, 47th Ohio. 

Job T. Devoss, 47th Ind. died 

John W. Devoss, " " 

Michael Downey, " 

Daniel Dearworth, 87th Ohio 

James Evans, 69th Ohio. 

David W. Freeman, 12th Ind. 

0. C. Higgins, 3d Mich Cav. 
Jackson Hatttrman, 47th Ind. 
W. N. Higgins, 
John S. Hawkins, 22 Ohio 
Isaac E. Haines, 47th Ind. 
James A. Hanliu, 17th Ohio 
David Jordan, Co. G, 40th Ohio 
Charles R. Loomis, 12th Ind. 
John Losh, 1st 111. Cavalry 
F. G. McConnell, 47ih l&d. 
R. L. McConnell, 80th " 
Leander Moon, 85th Ohio 
John Mongar, — Ind. Cav. 
Samuel Morris, 87th Ind. 
H. M. McLaughlin, 134th Ind. 
Hiram McLaughlin, 87th Ohio 
John G. McLaughlin, " 
John Pfeifer, 1st Ohio Cav. 
Theodore Parker, 17th Ohio 
Webster Richmond, 12th Ind. 

Geo. M. Randall, Battery 

Felix Ryan, 124th Ind. 
Daniel W. Smith, 19th Ind.— 

Died at Washington. 
Joseph A. Starbuck, 41st Ind. 
Amos Shey, — Ohio 
Penley Shey, " 
Francis Snyder, 19th Ind. 
O. B. Snyder, 40th Ohio 
James Smith, " 
James Spillman, " 
John Stone, 87th Ohio 
Francis M. Wright, 17th Ind. 
ElishaB. West, 29th Ind. 
A. J. Williamson, 19th Ind. 




John Gaunt, 8th Ind. Henry J. Warner, 8th Ind. 

William Gust on, Co. E, 36th W. H. West, — Ohio 
Ind. died Dec. 30, 1861. 

The following names are on the Provust Mar- 
shal's record, as volunteers for Jaj, without the 
regiment being given : 

H. H. Abbott, 
John D. J. German, 
George Goucher, 
Joseph Glover, 
Isaac Gray, 
Jonathan Gibbons, 
Benjamin Hutchins, 
Henry Kizer, 
Allen Loveall, 
John C. Morris, 
John H. McConnell, 
Henry Mussey, 
Adam Murray, 
Eli Mock, 
Willliam Mann, 

Total Miscellaneous. 

Honry C. Mongar, 
Jacob Money, 
Thomas Paxson, 
Martin Pinnej', 
Charles Pegg, 
Eli Rives, 
C. N. Rarrick, 
Edwin Rynearson, 
John N. Sullivan, 
Jeremiah Vance, 
John Vore, 
Joseph Wood, 
Cyrus J. Wilson, 
John Warner, 
Robert Youus:. 


In L862 James B. Jaqua was appointed Draft 
Commissioner for Ja}^ County. He took the first 
enrollment, and on the 6th of October, 1862, the 
following persons were drafted for nine months. 
Thej were taken to Indianapolis by Provost Mar- 
shal Isaac Underwood, where they had the privi- 
lege of choosing what volunteer regiment they 
desired to enter, and were scattered : 



[Those marked with an asterisk (*) furnished a substitute.] 

Washington Bridgford, 
James J. Bridgford, 
G. W. Current, 
David Current, 
"W. N. Current, 
D. M. Crumley,* 
John Clippard, 
John L. Fires, 
Calvin Hickman, 
Thomas Hall,* 
James Kenton, 
J. A. Keesaer, 
J. W. Levally, 

George S. Barber, 
John Barnes,* 
John J. L. Craig, 
Manasseh Johnson, 
Griffln Johnson, 
J. F. McFarland,* 

F. M. Bell, 
Cyrus Blackaby,* 
William Ernest, 
George Fires,* 
Abraham Halm, Jun. 
W. C. Hudson,* 
W. H. Hammond,* 
Samuel Hite,* 
Benjamin Heston, 
J. R. Judy,* 
A. J. Landis, 


O. A. Lord, 
A. P. Mallow,* 
M. E. McDaniel, 
D. F. Norris, 
J. C. Norris, 
T. G. Osburn, 
J. M. Resler, 
C. B. St. Johns,* 
Benjamin Stover, 
George Stover, 
Daniel Sutton, 
James J. Taylor — 25. 


Mordecai Phillips, 
Allen Parker, 
W. G. Smith,* 
John Whitacre, 
J, F. Woods, 
William Wright— 13. 


Ephraim Morgan, 
Joseph Mendeuhall, 
William Miller, 
Milton McVey, 
Chene Pyle, 
James Patterson, 
Henry Ritenour,* 
G. W. Shepherd,* 
Watson Swhier, 
S. S. Taylor, 
David Warren — 33. 



John Gilbert, A. K. Pyle, 

Henry Hizer, John Peterson, 

J. N. Hiatt,* Isaac Phillips,* 

D. M. V. B. Lanning, Jonas Phillips— 9. 

John Murphy, 


Alexander Anderson,* L. T, Harter, 

J. A. Cunningham, Emanuel Hartzell, 

John Coffman, William Livengood, 

Ira Gilbert, J. A. Morehous,* 

John Hale, George Parsons,* 

S. D. Holsopple,* Daniel Theurer— 13. 


J. W. Bartmes, James Pitt, 

William Bishop, Moses Ross, 

A. J. Gillum,* Zedekiah Wheeler — 7. 
Joseph Huey,* 

Total number drafted 87. 

The casualties in the miscellaneous list and most of the 
fractional companies are not known. 

Total number of soldiers from Jay 1,131 

Deduct drafted men 87 

Leaving the total number of volunteers 1,044 

A few, after being discharged, have re-enlisted, and their 
names appear twice, and a very few more are from other 
counties, leaving over ONE THOUSAND VOLUNTEERS 
from Jay County in the Army of the Union ! God bless 
them ! Farewell.